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Note for C Language - C By Kamalakar Vankala

  • C Language - C
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KAMAL’S C - LANGUAGE NOTES Prepared by KAMALA KAR VANKALA M.C.A., CHEEPURUPALLI VIZIANAGARAM(DIST) E-mail: kamalakarvankala@gmail.com OUR OTHER MATERIALS: COBOL, FOXPRO,C++,DATASTRUCTURES

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Introduction of C language Computer Programming languages Naturally a language is the source of communication between two persons, and also between person to machine like computer. The languages we can use to communicate with the computer are known as Computer programming languages. Generally there are two major types of languages are available are as follows: 1. Low level languages The set of commands available in low level is complex and not easy to understandable. In this category " Assembly " and " machine codes " are available. Assembly programs are faster than other high-level language programs. 2. High level languages The set of commands available in high level language is very simple and easy to understandable. High level languages are further divided into two major categories. 1. Procedure Oriented language In this category we are able to create our project or programs using procedural approach means in this type we can able to divide our big project/program into small subroutines or procedures. After making procedures we can able to call a ‘procedure’ one or more places. The lists of procedural languages are as follows: C language C++ (Object Oriented) Java (Objected Oriented) Smalltalk (Objected Oriented) Pascal language Kamalakar Vankala MCA., Cheepurupalli -9032986572 Page 2

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2. Non-Procedural Languages: This category also known as ‘Problem Oriented languages’. In this type of languages we can able to make program only at specific range like database. The followings are the examples of Non procedural languages 1. SQL (Structured Query Language) 2. SNOBOL (String processor) HISTORY OF C LANGUAGE • In 1960,an international committed was set up to develop a generalpurpose language. • This committee developed ALGOL 60 in the year 1960.this language was very abstract. • Combined programming language(CPL) was developed in 1963.But CPL was very big and had many features.It was difficult to learn and use. • BCPL was developed in 1967 by Martin Richards. It was not very powerful. • Ken Thompson simplified BCPL to make B language in 1970. B represents the first letter of BCPL. This Language was very small. • Dennis Richie by using B,BCPL & some additional feature developed C language in 1972. Letter C is taken from the second letter of BCPL. ALGOL 60 (1960) CPL (1963) BCPL (1967) B (1970) C (1972) Characteristics of C language C language was developed by Dennis Richie at AT & T Bell Laboratories in 1972. It is a general purpose, flexible ,powerful and structured programming languge. C is used for many application. It has many inbuilt functions. It is simple to use and easy to learn friendly,reliable and compact language. It is case sensitive language. The variable in upper case & lower case letters have different meaning. It has many library functions. The user can add new functions. It is high-level language but it is called middle level language. It has characteristics of both high-level language & low-level. Kamalakar Vankala MCA., Cheepurupalli -9032986572 Page 3

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Characteristics • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • It is simple to use & easy to learn. C is reliable language. The keywords & library functions in C are like English words. C program can be executed on different computers. C compiler is very fast so execution is very fast. C compiler is easily available. It require small disk space for storage. It is easy to load. Errors are display on screen. They can be easily removed. Program can be divided into small modules by using functions. Program is easy to understand. Can be used for recursive programming. Can be used for graphic programming. Format free language. Pointer can be used. More data types and more operators than any other language. It has many version such as Turbo C,ANSI C. It has the characteristics of both low level & high level language. Bitwise manipulate is possible. It can be used for structured programming. Coding of C program is compact as compared to other languages. It can be used for system programming. C language has only 32 keywords. They are easy to learn & use. CHARACTER SET The characters that can be used to form words, numbers and expressions depend upon the computer which the program is run. The characters in C are grouped into the following categories Kamalakar Vankala MCA., Cheepurupalli -9032986572 Page 4

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