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Note for Thermodynamics - TD by Srinivas K Seenu

• Thermodynamics - TD
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BASIC THERMODYNAMICS CLICK TO VIEW ↓ >>Syllabus >>Solved Questions >>Question Paper Set Click & Download VTU CAMPUS APP Get VTU Notifications, Notes, Question Papers Events, Circulars and a lot more!

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BASIC THERMODYNAMICS [AS PER CHOICE ASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) SCHEME] SEMESTER – III Subject Code 15 ME 33 IA Marks Number of Lecture Hrs / Week 04 Exam Marks Total Number of Lecture Hrs 50 Exam Hours CREDITS – 04 20 80 03 COURSE OBJECTIVES 1. Learn about thermodynamic systems and boundaries 2. Study the basic laws of thermodynamics including, conservation of mass, conservation of energy or first law , second law and Zeroth law. 3. Understand various forms of energy including heat transfer and work 4. Identify various types of properties (e.g., extensive and intensive properties) 5. Use tables, equations, and charts, in evaluation of thermodynamic properties 6. Apply conservation of mass, first law, and second law in thermodynamic analysis of systems (e.g., turbines, pumps, compressors, heat exchangers, etc.) 7. Enhance their problem solving skills in thermal engineering COURSE OUTCOMES The student will be able to CO 1 CO 2 CO3 CO4 CO 5 Course Outcomes Explain thermodynamic systems, properties, Zeroth law of thermodynamics, temperature scales and energy interactions. Determine heat, work, internal energy, enthalpy for flow & non flow process using First and Second Law of Thermodynamics. Interpret behavior of pure substances and its applications to practical problems. Determine change in internal energy, change in enthalpy and change in entropy using TD relations for ideal gases. Calculate Thermodynamics properties of real gases at all ranges of pressure, temperatures using modified equation of state including Vander Waals equation, Redlich Wong equation and Beattie-Bridgeman equation. Total Number Lecture hours PO's Course Level PO1 U P01, PO2 Ap PO1,PO2 U PO1,PO2 Ap PO1,PO2 Ap 50 MODULE 1 Fundamental Concepts & Definitions: Thermodynamic definition and scope, Microscopic and Macroscopic approaches. Some practical applications of engineering thermodynamic Systems, Characteristics of system boundary and control surface, examples. Thermodynamic properties; definition and units, intensive , extensive properties, specific properties, pressure, specific volume Thermodynamic state, state point, state diagram, path and process, quasi-static process, cyclic and non-cyclic; processes; Thermodynamic equilibrium; definition, mechanical equilibrium; diathermic wall, thermal equilibrium, chemical equilibrium, Zeroth law of thermodynamics, Temperature; concepts, scales, international fixed points and measurement of temperature. Constant volume gas thermometer, constant pressure gas thermometer, mercury in glass thermometer Work and Heat: Mechanics, definition of work and its limitations. Thermodynamic definition of work; examples, sign convention. Displacement work; as a part of a system boundary, as a whole of a system boundary, expressions for displacement work in various processes through p-v diagrams. Shaft work; Electrical work. Other types of work. Heat; definition, units and sign convention. Problems 10 Hours

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MODULE 2 First Law of Thermodynamics: Joules experiments, equivalence of heat and work. Statement of the First law of thermodynamics, extension of the First law to non - cyclic processes, energy, energy as a property, modes of energy, Extension of the First law to control volume; steady flow energy equation(SFEE), important applications. Second Law of Thermodynamics: limitations of first law of thermodynamics Devices converting heat to work; (a) in a thermodynamic cycle, (b) in a mechanical cycle. Thermal reservoir, Direct heat engine; schematic representation and efficiency. Devices converting work to heat in a thermodynamic cycle; reversed heat engine, schematic representation, coefficients of performance. Kelvin - Planck statement of the Second law of Thermodynamics; PMM I and PMM II, Clausius statement of Second law of Thermodynamics, Equivalence of the two statements; Carnot cycle, Carnot principles. Problems 10 Hours MODULE 3 Reversibility: Definitions of a reversible process, reversible heat engine, importance and superiority of a reversible heat engine and irreversible processes; factors that make a process irreversible, reversible heat engines. Unresisted expansion, remarks on Carnot’s engine, internal and external reversibility, Definition of the thermodynamic temperature scale. Problems Entropy: Clasius inequality, Statement- proof, Entropy- definition, a property, change of entropy, entropy as a quantitative test for irreversibility, principle of increase in entropy, , calculation of entropy using Tds relations, entropy as a coordinate. 10 Hours MODULE 4 Availability, Irreversibility and General Thermodynamic relations. Introduction, Availability (Exergy), Unavailable energy (anergy), Relation between increase in unavailable energy and increase in entropy. Maximum work, maximum useful work for a system and control volume, irreversibility, second law efficiency (effectiveness). Gibbs and Helmholtz functions, Maxwell relations, Clapeyron equation, Joule Thomson coefficient, general relations for change in entropy, enthalpy , internal energy and specific heats. Pure Substances: P-T and P-V diagrams, triple point and critical points. Sub-cooled liquid, saturated liquid, mixture of saturated liquid and vapor, saturated vapor and superheated vapor states of pure substance with water as example. Enthalpy of change of phase (Latent heat). Dryness fraction (quality), T-S and H-S diagrams, representation of various processes on these diagrams. Steam tables and its use. Throttling calorimeter, separating and throttling calorimeter. 10 Hours MODULE 5 Ideal gases: Ideal gas mixtures, Daltons law of partial pressures, Amagat’s law of additive volumes, evaluation of properties of perfect and ideal gases, Air- Water mixtures and related properties, Psychrometric properties, Construction and use of Psychrometric chart. Real gases – Introduction , Air water mixture and related properties, Van-der Waal's Equation of state, Van-der Waal's constants in terms of critical properties, Redlich and Kwong equation of state Beattie-Bridgeman equation , Law of corresponding states, compressibility factor; compressibility chart. Difference between Ideal and real gases. 10 Hours TEXT BOOKS: 1. Basic Engineering Thermodynamics, A.Venkatesh, Universities Press, 2008 2. Basic and Applied Thermodynamics, P.K.Nag, 2nd Ed., Tata McGraw Hill Pub. 2002 REFERENCE BOOKS: 1. Thermodynamics, An Engineering Approach, Yunus A.Cenegal and Michael A.Boles, Tata McGraw Hill publications, 2002 2. Engineering Thermodynamics, J.B.Jones and G.A.Hawkins, John Wiley and Sons.. 3. Fundamentals of Classical Thermodynamics, G.J.Van Wylen and R.E.Sonntag, Wiley Eastern. 4. An Introduction to Thermodynamcis, Y.V.C.Rao, Wiley Eastern, 1993, 5. B.K Venkanna, Swati B. Wadavadagi “Basic Thermodynamics, PHI, New Delhi, 2010 Scheme of Examination: Two question to be set from each module. Students have to answer five full questions, choosing at least one full question from each module.

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Basic Thermodynamics 15ME33 QUESTIONS AND SOLUTIONS MODULE-1 1. What do you mean by thermodynamic equilibrium? How does it differ from thermal equilibrium? [05 Marks, June-2016] Equilibrium state: A system is said to be in thermodynamic equilibrium if it satisfies the condition for thermal equilibrium, mechanical equilibrium and also chemical equilibrium. If it is in equilibrium, there are no changes occurring or there is no process taking place. Thermal equilibrium: There should not be any temperature difference between different regions or locations within the system. If there are, then there is no way a process of heat transfer does not take place. Uniformity of temperature throughout the system is the requirement for a system to be in thermal equilibrium. 2. State Zeroth law of thermodynamics? Write its importance in thermodynamics. [04 Marks, June-2016] Zeroth law of thermodynamics‟ states that if two systems are each equal in temperature to a third, they are equal in temperature to each other. It helps to measure temperature. 3. Consider a particular Celsius scale assigned the value of 00C to steam point and 1000C to ice point. i) Using ideal gas as the thermometer medium, setup a relationship between 00C and pressure for a constant volume thermometer, proceed to derive the correction between the two Celsius scales. At what temperatures are the two scales are numerically equal? ii) What is the numerical value of absolute zero for the particular scale? What is 200K in 0C? [07 Marks, June-2016] Let T0C=a+Pb be the Celsius scale Then 0=a+Psb and 100=a+Pib On solving b=100/(Ps-Pi) Department of Mechanical Engineering, SJBIT Page 1