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Note for E-Commerce - EC By parag navander

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Parag Navander
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Q1. What is domain name? Explain the statutory requirements for registration and management of domain names Or Define domain name? ANS. Definitions of domain name on the Web: Strings of letters and numbers (separated by periods) that are used to name organizations and computers and addresses on the internet; "domain ... A domain name is another way of referring to the Internet address of a computer or group of computers on the Internet. Whereas an Internet address is made up of numbers (eg and therefore difficult to remember, a domain name (e.g. btinternet.com) is made up of meaningful words. A domain name locates an organization or other entity on the Internet. For example, the domain name www.totalbaseball.com Locates an Internet address for "totalbaseball.com" at Internet point and a particular host server named "www". The "com" part of the domain name reflects the purpose of the organization or entity (in this example, "commercial") and is called the top-level domain name. The "totalbaseball" part of the domain name defines the organization or entity and together with the top-level is called the second-level domain name. The second-level domain name maps to and can be thought of as the "readable" version of the Internet address. A third level can be defined to identify a particular host server at the Internet address. In our example, "www" is the name of the server that handles Internet requests. (A second server might be called "www2".) A third level of domain name is not required. For example, the fully-qualified domain name could have been "totalbaseball.com" and the server assumed. 1

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Subdomain levels can be used. For example, you could have "www.nyyankees.totalbaseball.com". Together, "www.totalbaseball.com" constitutes a fully-qualified domain name. Second-level domain names must be unique on the Internet and registered with one of the ICANN-accredited registrars for the COM, NET, and ORG top-level domains. Where appropriate, a top-level domain name can be geographic. (Currently, most nonU.S. domain names use a top-level domain name based on the country the server is in.) To register a U. S. geographic domain name or a domain name under a country code, see an appropriate registrar. On the Web, the domain name is that part of the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) that tells a domain name server using the domain name system (DNS) whether and where to forward a request for a Web page. The domain name is mapped to an IP address (which represents a physical point on the Internet). More than one domain name can be mapped to the same Internet address. This allows multiple individuals, businesses, and organizations to have separate Internet identities while sharing the same Internet server. Domain names are the human-readable addresses used on the Internet (eg, "www.microsoft.com"). The Domain Name Service translates these names into IP addresses which TCP/IP programs use directly. Compare dotted quad. <*HEAD*>Different policies for different endings. Each different domain name ending (for example, .com, .com.au) is governed by a different organisation and a different set of rules. For this reason, the requirements for registering domain names vary, along with other factors such as cost of registration, how long the domain name registration lasts before requiring renewal and who is eligible to apply. Comprehensive details on all these factors for each domain name type can be found in 2

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our domain name information pages. <*HEAD*>Unrestricted domains A number of popular domain names have no particular restrictions on who can apply for a name or on how that name is composed. (Note that in all cases, we strongly recommend against registering a name that infringes on a third parties trademarks, whether or not such a name appears to be available for registration.) Names that can be registered by anyone, anywhere include the global endings .com, .net and .org. Several countries also offer unrestricted registration including the United Kingdom (.co.uk), Denmark (.dk), South Africa (.co.za), New Zealand (.co.nz and .net.nz) and the Philippines (.ph and .com.ph). From a corporate point of view, these domain names are thus "high risk" in the sense that there is a much higher chance that other people have already registered names that you might have sought to register yourself. In the case of registrations made by someone else that were obviously in bad faith and primarily to "cyber-squat" or infringe on your established trademarks, recovery of names is often now possible. However, although this is much easier and less costly than in the past, the costs are still several times higher than having simply registered the domain name youself in the first place. Understandably, domains that are unrestricted make up the majority of domains registered worldwide, since registration is so easy. This can mean popular, generic words have already been registered by other people. It also means there is now an established secondary market as people have come to appreciate the importance of popular, short and easy to remember domain names. <*HEAD*>Domain endings with restricted registration A number of country code domain name endings have more restricted registration policies. These have usually been introduced to counter what are perceived to be the negative effects of the "free for all" policies described above. In most cases, the restrictions are intended to do one or more of the following: # prevent the monopolisation of generic terms by a single individual or corporation (achieved by placing restrictions on generic words, geographical place names). 3

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# reduce the problems associated with cyber-squatting and unauthorised registration of domain names by third parties with no rights to the name (achieved by forcing applicants to register domain names that are a close or exact representation of their official company or business name). # protect the country's domain name ending as an asset for the exclusive benefit of its citizens (by requiring valid proof of local residency or citizenship prior to registration). While these rules are strictly enforced and not subject to negotiation, we are can advise you on how best to work in with current policies and to facilitate the registration of domain names you may be seeking. If you do not currently meet the requirements for a particular domain name that you would like to register, please contact us for further information on how you may be able to meet the requirements. Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (As Approved by ICANN on October 24, 1999) 1. Purpose. This Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (the "Policy") has been adopted by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers ("ICANN"), is incorporated by reference into your Registration Agreement, and sets forth the terms and conditions in connection with a dispute between you and any party other than us (the registrar) over the registration and use of an Internet domain name registered by you. Proceedings under Paragraph 4 of this Policy will be conducted according to the Rules for Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (the "Rules of Procedure"), which are available at www.icann.org/udrp/udrp-rules24oct99.htm, and the selected administrative-dispute-resolution service provider's supplemental rules. 2. YourRepresentations. By applying to register a domain name, or by asking us to maintain or renew a domain name registration, you hereby represent and warrant to us that (a) the statements that you made in your Registration Agreement are complete and accurate; (b) to your knowledge, the registration of the domain name will not infringe upon or otherwise violate the rights of any third party; (c) you are not 4

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