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Note for Computer Network - CN By Ashutosh Jaiswal

  • Computer Network - CN
  • Note
  • Jntu anantapur - Jntua
  • Computer Science Engineering
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Ashutosh Jaiswal
Ashutosh Jaiswal
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Text from page-2

• Network software: • 1 Protocol Hierarchies • To reduce their design complexity, most networks are organized as a stack of layers or levels, each one built upon the one below it. • The number of layers, the name of each layer, the contents of each layer, and the function of each layer differ from network to network. • The purpose of each layer is to offer certain services to the higher layers,

Text from page-3

• Layer n on one machine carries on a conversation with layer n on another machine. • The rules and conventions used in this conversation are collectively known as the layer n protocol. • Basically, a protocol is an agreement between the communicating parties on how communication is to proceed. • A five-layer network is illustrated in Fig. 1-13. The entities comprising the corresponding layers on different machines are called peers.

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• In reality, no data are directly transferred from layer n on one machine to layer n on another machine. • Instead, each layer passes data and control information to the layer immediately below it, until the lowest layer is reached. • Below layer 1 is the physical medium through which actual communication occurs • Between each pair of adjacent layers is an interface. The interface defines which primitive operations and services the lower layer makes available to the upper one. • A set of layers and protocols is called a network architecture.

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