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NUVA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY,NAGPUR B.E 1st Semester (All Branches) Notes IMP NOTES AS PER ‘RTMNU’ SUBJECT:-Basics of Civil Engineering {40 MARKS} Ques No. 1:- Explain Principles of planning of buildings. Ans:- Various Principles of Building Planning:• • • • • • • • • • • • Aspect prospect Furniture requirements Roominess Grouping Circulation Privacy Sanitation Elegance Economy Flexibility Practical considerations 1.Aspect:- Aspect means the peculiarity of the arrangement of doors and windows in the external walls of a building which permits the occupants to enjoy the gifts of nature viz sun, breeze, outside scenery etc. 2. Prospect:-Prospect is the view from outside of a house. The house should have a proper prospect so that it can give a feeling of cheerfulness to the people living in it. It should create a good impression on a person who views it from outside. 3.Grouping :- :-Grouping consists in arranging various rooms in the layout plan of the building in such a manner that all the rooms are placed in proper co-relation to their functions and in proximity with each other. 4.Privacy:- Privacy is considered to be one of the most important principle of planning in all buildings specially in residential buildings. Privacy may be one part to another part of the same building or it may be the privacy of all parts of the building from neighboring buildings, public streets or bye ways etc. The extent of privacy of a building from the street, bye ways or neighboring buildings depends mainly upon the functions performed in the building. Page 1 of 26 Basics of Civil Engineering Prof. Md Shahjada Alam

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NUVA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY,NAGPUR B.E 1st Semester (All Branches) Notes 5. Roominess:-The effect produced by deriving the maximum benefit from the minimum dimensions of a room is termed as roominess. Roominess is the accomplishment of economy of space without cramping of the plan. 6. Circulation :-Circulation means internal through fares or access providing in a room or between rooms on the same floor. Passage, halls and lobbies perform the function of circulation on the same floor. Such provisions are termed as horizontal circulation. On the other hand, stairs, lifts, ramps etc., which serves the purpose of providing means of access between different floors get covered under the category of the term vertical circulation. 7. Sanitation:-The term sanitation covers not only sanitary convenience like water closet, urinals, bath rooms, wash basins etc., but also proper and adequate lightning ventilation and facilities for general cleaning of the building. From hygienic considerations, all parts of the building should be well ventilated and lighted. 8. Elegance:- Elegance is the term used to express the effect produced by the elevation and general layout of the building. Hence for a building to be elegant. 9. Flexibility:-Flexibility means designing certain rooms required for specific purpose in such a manner that they may be used for overlapping functions as and when desired. 10.Economy:-The building should have minimum floor areawith maximum utility.It will reduce cost of building.Hence; it will be economical. Economy can achievevd by providing simple elevation, reducing the storey height ,dispensing of porches,lobbies & balconies. Ques No.2:-Explain various types Cements. Ans:- Types of Cement Following are the different types of cement used in construction works. 1. Rapid Hardening Cement:-Rapid hardening cement is very similar to ordinary portland cement (OPC). It contains higher c3s content and finer grinding. Therefore it gives greater strength development at an early stage than OPC. The strength of this cement at the age of 3 days is almost same as the 7 days strength of OPC with the same water-cement ratio.The main advantage of using rapid hardening cement is that the formwork can be removed earlier and reused in other areas which save the cost of formwork. This cement can be used in prefabricated concrete construction, road works, etc. 2. Low Heat Cement:- Low heat cement is manufactured by increasing the proportion of C2S and by decreasing the C3S and C3A content. This cement is less reactive and its initial setting time is greater than OPC. This cement is mostly used in mass concrete construction. Page 2 of 26 Basics of Civil Engineering Prof. Md Shahjada Alam

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NUVA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY,NAGPUR B.E 1st Semester (All Branches) Notes 3. Sulfate Resisting Cement:-Sulfate resisting cement is made by reducing C3A and C4AF content. Cement with such composition has excellent resistance to sulfate attack. This type of cement is used in the construction of foundation in soil where subsoil contains very high proportions of sulfate . 4. White Cement:-White cement is a type of ordinary Portland Cement which is pure white in color and has practically the same composition and same strength as OPC. To obtain the white color the iron oxide content is considerably reduced. The raw materials used in this cement are limestone and china clay.This cement, due to its white color, is mainly used for interior and exterior decorative work like external renderings of buildings, facing slabs, floorings, ornamental concrete products, paths of gardens, swimming pools etc. 5. Portland Pozzolana Cement:-Portland pozzolana cement is produced either by grinding together, portland cement clinkers and pozzolana with the addition of gypsum or calcium sulfate or by intimately and uniformly blending portland cement and fine pozzolana.It produces lower heat of hydration and has greater resistance to attack of chemical agencies than OPC. Concrete made with PPC is thus considered particularly suitable for construction in sea water, hydraulic works and for mass concrete works. 6. Hydrophobic Cement:-Hydrophobic cement is manufactured by adding water repellant chemicals to ordinary portland cement in the process of grinding. Hence the cement stored does not spoiled even during monsoon. This cement is claimed to remain unaffected when transported during rains also. Hydrophobic cement is mainly used for the construction of water structures such dams, water tanks, spillways, water retaining structures etc. 7. Colored Cement:-This Cement is produced by adding 5- 10% mineral pigments with portland cement during the time of grinding. Due to the various color combinations this cement is mainly used for interior and exterior decorative works. 8. Waterproof Portland Cement:-Waterproof cement is prepared by mixing with ordinary or rapid hardening cement, a small percentage of some metal stearates (Ca, Al, etc) at the time of grinding. This cement is used for the construction of water-retaining structure like tanks, reservoirs, retaining walls, swimming pools, dams, bridges, piers etc. 9. Portland Blast Furnace Cement:-In this case, the normal cement clinkers are mixed with up to 65% of the blast furnace slag for the final grinding. This type of cement can be used with advantage in mass concrete work such as dams, foundations, and abutments of bridges, retaining walls , construction in sea water. 10. Air Entraining Cement:-It is produced by air entraining agents such as resins, glues, sodium salts of sulfate with ordinary portland cement. 11. High Alumina Cement:-High alumina cement (HAC) is a special cement, manufactured by mixing of bauxite ( aluminum ore) and lime at a certain temperature. This cement is also known as calcium aluminum cement (CAC). The Page 3 of 26 Basics of Civil Engineering Prof. Md Shahjada Alam

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NUVA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY,NAGPUR B.E 1st Semester (All Branches) Notes compressive strength of this cement is very high and more workable than ordinary portland cement. 12. Expansive Cement:-The cement which does not shrink during and after the time of hardening but expands slightly with time is called expansive cement. This type of cement is mainly used for grouting anchor bolts and prestressed concrete ducts. Ques No.3:- Explain different Grades of Cement. Ans:- Grades of Cement:1. 33 Grade Cement:- 33 grade cement means that the compressive strength of the cement after 28 days is 33N/mm2 when tested as per Indian Standards under standard conditions.This grade of cement is used for general construction work under normal environmental condition. It may not be suitable for concrete grade above M20. Due to the availability of higher grades in the cement, use of 33 grade cement has declined. Nowadays 33 grade cement is hardly manufactured. 2. 43 Grade Cement:- 43 grade cement means that the compressive strength of the cement after 28 days is 43N/mm2 when tested as per Indian Standards under standard conditions.This grade of cement is used for plain concrete work and plastering works. It is suitable make concrete mix up to M30. 43 grade cement is also used to make precast items, such as tiles, blocks, pipes, etc. It can be used where setting time is not a necessary criterion. 3. 53 Grade Cement:- 53 grade cement means that the compressive strength of the cement after 28 days is 53 N/mm2 when tested as per Indian Standards under standard conditions. 53 grade cement has a fast setting time as compared to 43 grade cement.This grade of cement is not used for ordinary works. It is mostly used for the structural purposes as in reinforced cement concrete. 53 grade cement is suitable in making concrete mix above M 25. It can also be used in prestressed concrete.It is very important to check the grade of cement before using, it because it ultimately affects the strength of your structure. If you do not use suitable grade of cement for the particular job, you never get your desired strength. Ques No.4:-Explain Load Bearing Structure & Framed Structure. Page 4 of 26 Basics of Civil Engineering Prof. Md Shahjada Alam

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