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Note for Green Technology - GT By Anupam kumar MODI

  • Green Technology - GT
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  • GANDHI ENGINEERING COLLEGE - GEC
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Anupam Kumar Modi
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UNITED NATIONS - NATIONS UNIES ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMISSION FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC ASIAN AND PACIFIC CENTRE FOR ENGINEERING AND MACHINERY (APCAEM) AGRICULTURAL A-7/F, CHINA INTERNATIONAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY CONVENTION CENTRE NO. 12, YUMIN ROAD, CHAOYANG DISTRICT, BEIJING 100029, P.R. CHINA A Feasibility Study on the Application of GREEN TECHNOLOGY FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT: Assessing the policy impact in selected member countries of ESCAP-APCAEM Tel: (86 10) 8225 3581/3580/3578/3793 • Fax: (86 10) 8225 3584 • Email: info@unapcaem.org Website: www.unapcaem.org Disclaimer The designation used and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the express of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations Economic and Social commission for Asian and the Pacific (UNESCAP) concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The views expressed in this publication are those of authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of UNESCAP. Mention of firm names and commercial products does not imply the endorsement of the UNESCAP. 1

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TABLE OF CONTENTS ACRONYMS ........................................................................................................................... 5 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY..................................................................................................... 7 CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION ................................................................................. 16 1.1 Background ....................................................................................................................... 16 1.1.1 APCAEM and Green Technology Initiative ............................................................ 17 1.1.2 Defining the Term “Green Technology”.................................................................. 17 1.2 Objectives.......................................................................................................................... 18 1.3 Green Technology and Their Inter-linkages ..................................................................... 19 1.3.1 Technology for Environment-friendly Agriculture.................................................. 19 1.3.2 Agriculture Technology and Poverty Reduction...................................................... 21 1.3.3 Green Technology and Rural Environmental Concerns .......................................... 24 1.3.4 Income Generation Especially to Farmers ............................................................... 27 1.3.5 Linking Gender Dimensions .................................................................................... 28 1.4 Methodology ..................................................................................................................... 30 1.4.1 Selection of Technology........................................................................................... 31 1.4.2 Situation Analysis .................................................................................................... 33 1.4.3 Expected Output....................................................................................................... 33 CHAPTER TWO: STATUS OF GT IN APCAEM MEMBER-COUNTRIES (NEPAL, INDIA AND MALAYSIA) ................................................................................. 34 2.1 Selected Areas and Technologies...................................................................................... 51 2.1.1 Criteria for Selection ................................................................................................ 51 2.1.2 Feasible Green Technologies ................................................................................... 52 2.2 Good Practice Model......................................................................................................... 59 2.3 Case Studies ...................................................................................................................... 59 2.3.1 NEPAL: Biogas........................................................................................................ 59 2.3.2 NEPAL: Agro forestry ............................................................................................. 67 2.3.3 INDIA: Biofuel- Jatropha......................................................................................... 74 2.3.4 MALAYSIA : Biomas ............................................................................................. 78 CHAPTER THREE:IMPACT OF GREEN TECHNOLOGY......................................... 80 3.1 On Promoting Green Practices.......................................................................................... 80 3.2 On Sustainable Agriculture, Rural Income and Poverty Reduction ................................. 81 3.3 On Contributing to Income Generation through Ecological Agriculture and Rural Renewable Energy............................................................................................................. 81 3.4 Enhancing Policy Development and Capacity Building in the Application of Green Technology........................................................................................................................ 83 3.5 National Policies for GT: Impact, Implication and Challenges ........................................ 84 3.5.1 Nepal ........................................................................................................................ 84 3.5.2 India.......................................................................................................................... 88 3.5.3 Malaysia ................................................................................................................... 89 2

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CHAPTER FOUR: CHALLENGES AND ALTERNATIVES......................................... 91 4.1 Challenges and Alternatives.............................................................................................. 91 CHAPTER FIVE................................................................................................................... 95 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .............................................................. 95 5.1 Conclusions ....................................................................................................................... 95 5.2 Recommendations ............................................................................................................. 96 5.2.1 On Reviewed Technologies ..................................................................................... 96 5.2.2 On Phase II Program ................................................................................................ 98 5.2.3 On Policy Adoption.................................................................................................. 98 5.2.4 On the Causal Effect of Green Technology on Poverty........................................... 99 5.2.5 On the future development of green technology in Asia and Pacific..................... 100 REFERENCES .................................................................................................................... 101 ANNEX A: INDICATIVE DEVELOPMENT, RESOURCES, AND ENERGY RELATED INFORMATION............................................................................................. 111 ANNEX B: BIOGAS DESIGN PARAMETERS.............................................................. 116 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS…………………………………………………………………117 LIST OF TABLES Table 1.1 Table 2.1 Table 2.2 Table 2.3 Table 2.4 Table 2.5 Table 2.6 Table 2.7 Table 2.8 Table 2.9 Table 2.10 Table 2.11 Table 2.12 Table 2.13 Table 2.14 Table 2.15 Environmental impact from intelligent products ............................................... 27 Structure of energy consumption, Nepal............................................................ 36 Status of alternative energy and biogas.............................................................. 37 Major energy and economic indicators .............................................................. 38 World primary energy consumption .................................................................. 39 Primary energy consumption in Asia ................................................................. 41 Primary commercial energy supply in Malaysia................................................ 42 Agricultural sciences and technology indicators-snapshot data, Malaysia ........ 42 Final commercial energy demand1 by source (2000-2010) ............................... 44 India: Projections of future energy supply potential from 'Carbon-Free' sources ........................................................................................ 50 Labor involved in Sisne Hydropower Project .................................................... 54 Impact of biogas on various smoke-borne diseases ........................................... 62 Poverty Reduction Impact (PRI) of Biogas Energy ........................................... 62 Net greenhouse gas saving per digester in Nepal............................................... 63 Daily fuel-wood and kerosene savings from biogas in Nepal............................ 63 Average time allocated to different biogas related activities before and after installation of biogas plant ................................................................................. 65 3

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Table 2.16 Table 2.17 Table 2.18 Table 2.19 Table 2.20 Table 2.21 Table 2.22 Table 2.23 Table 2.24 Table 2.25 Table 2.26 Table 2.27 Phase wise progress of biogas............................................................................ 65 Year wise subsidy rate by sources of financing ................................................. 66 Summary of cost and benefit of biogas.............................................................. 66 Evaluation of technology for adoption............................................................... 67 Major agroforestry species for Nepal................................................................. 70 Common fuel wood species for agroforestry ..................................................... 70 Common fodder species for agroforestry........................................................... 71 Net benefit from agroforest, agriculture and forest............................................ 73 Summary of cost and benefit of agroforestry..................................................... 74 Summary of cost and benefit of jatropha ........................................................... 78 Evaluation of technology for adoption............................................................... 78 Potential power generation from oil palm residues at palm oil mills in Malaysia .............................................................................. 79 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.1 Figure 2.1 Figure 2.2 Three bottom lines.............................................................................................. 32 Sustainability and biogas.................................................................................... 60 Inter-linkages of agro forest, agriculture, household, and livestock .................. 72 LIST OF BOXES Box 1.1 Box 1.2 Box 2.1 Box 2.2 Box 3.1 Box 3.2 Chinese Farm Forestry— Not Just Trees in Fields ............................................ 21 Net Income Increases by 80 Percent .................................................................. 25 System of Rice Intensification: A New Approach ............................................. 48 Community Forestry in Nepal............................................................................ 68 Ecological Agriculture ....................................................................................... 82 Challenges and Opportunities for Alternative Energy in Nepal ........................ 87 4

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