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Note for Physics - Phy By Divyansh Das

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Optics Overview

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What is light? • Light is a form of electromagnetic energy – detected through its effects, e.g. heating of illuminated objects, conversion of light to current, mechanical pressure (“Maxwell force”) etc. • Light energy is conveyed through particles: “photons” – ballistic behavior, e.g. shadows • Light energy is conveyed through waves – wave behavior, e.g. interference, diffraction • Quantum mechanics reconciles the two points of view, through the “wave/particle duality” assertion

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Particle properties of light Photon=elementary light particle Mass=0 Speed c=3×108 m/sec According to Special Relativity, a mass-less particle travelling travelling at light speed can still carry momentum! momentum! Energy E=hν h=Planck’s constant =6.6262×10-34 J sec relates the dual particle & wave nature of light; ν is the temporal oscillation frequency of the light waves

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Wave properties of light λ: wavelength (spatial period) k=2π/λ wavenumber ν: temporal frequency ω=2πν angular frequency E: electric field 1/ν λ

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