4-CSE-IT UNIT-1 INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT Management is a social process of planning, organizing, co-ordinating, commanding and controlling for the purpose of achieving organizational goals by using limited resourced effectively and efficiently by working with and through people. MANAGEMENT DEFINITIONS :➢ Management is what a manager does. ➢ Management is a art of getting things done through and with the people in a formal organization. ➢ Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals working together in groups effectively to accomplish selected aims. --Koontz and Weigh rich. ➢ Management is the art and science of decision making and leadership; ➢ Management is the coordination of Human and material resourced essential in the effective and efficient attainment of objectives. CONCEPT OF MANAGEMENT :The term Management refers to people at the top level in the organization concerned with decision making. The term Management has been used in different sense. Sometimes it is used to mean the “group of managerial personnel” in an organization. At other times it refers to the process of planning, organizing, staffing. Directing and controlling. It is also referred to as a body of knowledge, a practice and a discipline. NATURE OF MANAGEMENT :➢ Management is getting things done as manager cannot work alone by himself; he gets it done through others. So, he motivates the sub-ordinates to accomplish the task of work assigned. ➢ Management is an organized activity as it is concerned with the efficient use of resources like men, money and materials in the organization. ➢ Management is a group activity management cannot exist independent of the group or organizations it manages. It is a cardinal part of any group activity and inspires workers to put forth their best efforts. ➢ Management is an universal activity as the management principles are universally applicable, as they can be modified to suit the given situation and the type of organization. ➢ Management is purposeful as management is a goal-oriented activity and is concerned with the accomplishment of goals through its functions.
4-CSE-IT ➢ Management is a processas it involves planning, organizing, directing and controlling the efforts of human resources in the use of material resources. ➢ Management is an integrating processas it integrates men, machines and materials for performing various operations and accomplishing the stated goals. ➢ Management is intangible as it is abstract and cannot be seen with the eyes, but it is evidenced by the quality of the organization and the results. ➢ Management is a profession because some of its established principles are being applied in practice. ➢ Management is inter-disciplinary as it draws knowledge and concepts from other social psychology, sociology, anthropology, economics, etc. Management integrates the ideas and concepts from these disciplines and presents newer concepts. ➢ Management is a science and an art: as management has certain principles & laws which have wide applications, we treat it as science. As a management is concerned with the application of knowledge for the solution of the organizational problems, it is treated as an art. ➢ Management is dynamic as it adapts itself to the social changes and introduces innovations it methodology. ➢ Management involves decision making as management process involves decision making art various levels for getting things done by others. ➢ Management applies economic principles that underline the control of men and materials in the organization. ➢ Management is concerned with direction and control of various activities as it deals particularly withthe active direction of the human effort. IMPORTANCE / SIGNIFICANCE OF MANAGEMENT :Management plays a very unique role in modern society. It regulates our productive activities by organizing factors of production. A business which has all the resources like men, money material and machinery cannot satisfy customers unless they are efficiently manage. Thus every business needs repeated stimulus which can only be provided by management. Management is viewed as a very significant tool because of the following reasons ; ➢ Determination of objectives :the success of various operations of an organization mainly depends on the identification of its objectives. Objectives are identified and laid down by the management. ➢ Achievement of objectives : it is the management which directs the group effort towards achievement of various objectives. ➢ Optimum utilization of resources :it is the management which makes optimum utilization of various resources such as land, labour , capital and enterprise. “No
4-CSE-IT ideology, no ism, no political theory can with greater output with less efforts, only sound management”,says Urwick and Brech. ➢ Meets challenges : through better planning and control, management steers a concern to meet the demands of the changing environment. ➢ Provides innovation : management infuses an enterprise with new ideals, imagination and vision. ➢ Smooth running of business : management helps in smooth running of business through better planning and control. ➢ Social benefits : management benefits the society, as it raises the standard of living of the people by providing good quality of products at the lowest prices. ➢ Economy and efficiency : management ensures economy and efficiency. As managers help the employees to perform better, the organizations can minimize their costs through sound management. ➢ Key to economic growth :the development of a nation mainly depends o n the quality of the management of its resources. It is true for a developing country like India, where productivity is low and the resources are limited. By producing wealth, managers facilitate the increase in national income and thus, the living standard of the people. Management is thus the key to the economic growth. FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT :Functions of Management are the activities done by the top-level people in the Organization. The process of management covers certain functions to be performed in logical sequence. Luther Gullick identified “POSDCORB” indicating P--Planning, O--Organizing, S--Staffing, D--Directing, Co-Coordinating, R--Reporting, B--Budgeting, As Functions of management reporting and budgeting are covered as elements of controlling and planning so it is not standard classification of functions.
4-CSE-IT Henry Fayol gave a list of five functions as elements of management process. --Planning, --Organizing, --Commanding, --Co-ordinating and --Controlling. By generalizing the classification a standard classification given by Koontz is identified. According to Knootz functions are: --Planning, --Organizing, --Staffing, --Directing and (includes leadership, Motivation, Communication & Co-ordination.) --Controlling. 1.Planning :Planning refers to the process of preparing for the future by choosing the best course of action to achieve the goals. In detail planning involves essentially four stages: 1. 2. 3. 4. Identifying the goals to be achieved. Exploring the courses of action available to reach this goal. Evaluating each course of action on merits & Selecting the best course of action for implementing. Elements of planning :1. Forecasts :- Prediction of what is going to happen in future based on past and present data. 2. Objectives :- Objectives are set for every individual and department in the organisation. 3. Policies :- These specifies the do’s and don’ts of the employees to achieve the given goals.