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Note for Engineering Chemistry - EC By Md_Shahjada_ Alam

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B.E 1st Semester RTMNU Notes( Common All Branches) Performance of charity is the key of attaining the estate of a philanthropist Bachlor of Engineering (B.E) ( Common To All Branches) 1st SEM C.B.S HELPFUL NOTES Subject- Engineering Chemistry BY Md Shahjada Alam (Shah) B.E (Civil Engineering), M.Tech (Environmental Engineering,Pursuing) pg. 1 Engineering Chemistry By Shah Sir

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B.E 1st Semester RTMNU Notes( Common All Branches) Dedicated To My Respected Grandfather Late Haji Mohammad Abbas pg. 2 Engineering Chemistry By Shah Sir

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B.E 1st Semester RTMNU Notes( Common All Branches) Engineering Chemistry (40 Marks) Theories:-32 Marks Numericals:-08 Marks Instructions:- 1.For Topper Read All Questions. 2.For On paper Read All Compulsory & Semi-Compulsory Questions. 3.For Passing Read Only Compulsory Questions. Syllabus:Unit – I: Water Technology (12 Marks) Hardness of water and types of hardness Domestic water treatment: Brief discussion of coagulation and sterilization using UV. Ozone, chlorine, Break point chlorination. Softening of water-principle, reactions, advantages, limitations and Comparison of – Lime-Soda process, Zeolite process, and de-mineralization process. Boiler Troubles-(causes, effect on boiler operation and methods of prevention) – Carry over-priming and foaming; Scales and sludges, caustic embrittlement, boiler corrosion; internal conditioning- phosphate, carbonate, calgon conditioning. Numericals based on lime-soda and Zeolite process. Desalination-using electro dialysis and reverse osmosis processes. Waste water treatment (introduction and importance) – Brief idea about tertiary treatment methods. Unit – II: Corrosion Science (10 Marks) Introduction, Causes and Consequence of corrosion, brief idea about electrochemical & galvanic series, Factors influencing corrosion) Nature of metal b) Nature of environment, Chemical and electrochemical corrosion, Mechanisms of electrochemical corrosion; Pilling Bed worth rule; Differential aeration theory of corrosion. Types of Corrosion – Pitting, inter granular, stress, waterline and galvanic corrosion. Corrosion Prevention – a) Design and material selection b) Cathodic and anodic protection, c) Protective surface coatings- tinning, galvanizing and powder coating, metal cladding and electroplating. Unit – III: Construction Materials (10 Marks) Cement: Portland cement – Raw material, Dry and wet process of manufacture, Proportion and role of microscopic constituents, Additives of cement ,Setting and hardening of cement; heat of hydration, soundness; Types of cement ( characteristics & applications ) – White, High alumina, Low heat ,Rapid hardening cement, Ready Mix Concrete, fly ash as cementing material( properties, advantages, limitations & application) Unit – IV: Green Chemistry and Battery Technology (08 Marks) Green Chemistry: Introduction, Principles and significance, industrial application (supercritical fluids as Solvents, Example-super critical CO2 ), Biocatalysis and concept of carbon credits. Battery Technology: Types of batteries, primary, secondary and reverse batteries, important definitionenergy density, power density. a) Secondary Battery: Lithium ion, Nickel-Cadmium b) Fuel cell application, advantages and limitation (Example: Alkaline fuel Cell). pg. 3 Engineering Chemistry By Shah Sir

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B.E 1st Semester RTMNU Notes( Common All Branches) Unit-01 (12 Marks) Water Technology Theories:-04 Marks THEORIES:- Numericals:-08 Marks Ques No.01:- Define Hardness of Water & their types. ( Future for 4 Marks ) Ans:- Hardness of Water:Hardness is defined as the concentrations of calcium and magnesium ions expressed in terms of calcium carbonate. Most commonly used units of hardness are grains per gallon (gpg), parts per million (ppm), and milligrams per liter (mg/L). Hardness of water is defined as soap destroying power of water. Hardness of water is due to the presence of soluble salts i.e. bicarbonates, chlorides and sulphates of calcium and magnesium. Since all these are soluble salts so they remain dissolved in water and are not removed by filtration. Types of Hardness of Water: Hardness of water is of two types: (a) Temporary hardness. (b) Permanent hardness. (a) Temporary Hardness:Temporary hardness is due to the presence of bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium. (i) It can be removed by boiling. On boiling the carbon dioxide is expelled out of water and precipitates of calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate are deposited at the bottom. Boiling is an expensive method of removing hardness of water on a large scale . (ii) Temporary hardness can also be removed by adding lime or calcium hydroxide (Clark’s process) to water. Lime absorbs carbon dioxide and precipitates of calcium carbonate are formed which settle at the bottom and separated by filtration. Ca (HC03)2 + Ca (OH)2 — 2CaC03 + 2H20. (b) Permanent Hardness:Permanent hardness is due to the presence of chlorides and sulphates of calcium and magnesium. It is not removed by boiling. However it can be removed by following methods: (i) When sodium carbonate or soda ash is added to water, it removes both temporary and permanent hardness of water. The sulphate of calcium and magnesium is converted into sodium sulphate. CaSO4 + Na2CO3———>Na2SO4 + CaCo3 (ii) Base Exchange or Permutit Process: This process is used for removal of hardness of water on large scale. Sodium permutit is a loose compound of sodium, aluminium and silica. When hard water is passed through it the calcium and magnesium ions are exchanged with sodium ions thus hardness is removed. Therefore this process is also called “base exchange process”. pg. 4 Engineering Chemistry By Shah Sir

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