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Note for Petroleum and Refinery Engineering - PRE By DNA Sahu

  • Petroleum and Refinery Engineering - PRE
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Petroleum Refinery Engineering and Petrochemicals (PREP) PETROLEUM EXPLORATION, PRODUCTION AND REFINING 1

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Petroleum • Petroleum derive from Greek work, means Rock oil. It occurs in the earth’s crust in all possible states (solid, liquid, gas), various colors from light brown to dark black. • It is a mixture of various hydrocarbons of homologous series namely paraffins, naphthenes and aromatics. As the name suggests these are large molecules made up of hydrogen atoms attached to a backbone of carbon. • The main elements are C (84-86%), H2 (11-14%) and other elements O2, N2, S (rarely constitute ~8%) different metals. • It is more homogeneous than coal and occurs mostly in sedimentary rocks. Hydrocarbon 2

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History of petroleum use Use of petroleum (especially: oil, bitumen) product has been noticed since ancient history: • The eternal fire of Baku (located in Azerbaijan) were the result of ignition of oil and natural gas. (Zoroastrians- fire temple) • The basket in which the baby Moses ( prophet in the Abrahamic religions) was hidden was water-proof using bitumen • The tower of Babel (located in Iraq) was constructed using bitumen as mortar • The North American Indians used petroleum as a medicine • The Mexican Indians valued bitumen as chewing-gum • Christopher Columbus used bitumen to make his ship seaworthy 3

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Introduction  Petroleum is cheap and convenient source of energy as compared to other fuels such as electricity.  India is the 4th largest consumer of petroleum products in the Asia-Pacific region and 15th largest consumer in the world  However, India ranks 22nd in the world in crude production.  Consumption is growing annually by 6~7 %; while production of crude is decaying  Imports 47 percent of crude oil and 15 percent of petroleum product requirements  Crude oil is always accompanied with gas but the reverse is not true.  Large deposits of gas occur without oil, such as at Sind (Pakistan), Po (Italy) and Siberia (Russia) 4

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