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Note for Business Communication - BC by Aditya Mohapatra

  • Business Communication - BC
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Lasswell (1948) classic definition of communication defines communication as: who (source or sender), says what (message), in which channel (medium), to whom (audience or receiver), with what effect. In other words this model is about process of communication and its function to society. Target customers (receivers) have particular preferences for the message channels. Discrete types of messages are received differing in their various uses. Furthermore the ways that receivers could respond to these messages or those senders of messages will occur in different paths, depend on detached preferences (Westmyer et al., 1998). The classic model of effective communication recommends the highest impact of the message that the sender sends occurs when the sender has thoroughly understood the demands and desires of the receivers. In other words, as Shannon and Weaver claims (1949): communication occurs when the sender encoding of the message corresponds with the receiver decoding of it (Shannon and Weaver, 1949). Message is the main target of the Shannon-Weaver model of effective communication. To make it clear, Shannon-Weaver model is about inter-personal communication that composed of eight principal components that are needed for information transmission or communication to be occurred: source, encoder, message, channel, decoder, receiver, noise and feedback. 1.1 Business Communication – an introduction Kotler claims that companies must ask not only how can we reach our customers but also, how can our customers reach us. (Kotler, 2009, p.564).This shows the importance of communication marketing between company and its customers. According to Kotler today communication is an interactive dialogue between the company and its customers 2

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that it takes place in all the stages i.e. pre-selling, selling, consuming and postconsuming. Moreover Kotler claims that technological advances had a great impact on the means of communication. People can communicate through traditional media (newspapers, radio, TV), as well as through newer media (computers, internet). By decreasing communication costs, the new technologies have encouraged more companies to move from mass-communication to more targeted communication and one-to-one dialogue (Kotler, 2009, p.564) The American Marketing Association (AMA) (2008) has provided a clearer definition of marketing as an organizational function and a set of processes for creating, communicating, and delivering value to customers and for managing customer relationships in ways that benefit the organization and its stakeholders. Importance of Communication in Business Communication plays a vital role in the fulfillment of all marketing objectives. Understanding communication is essential since it is the basic process through which managers specifically and organizations in their entirety accomplish their set objectives culminating in their success. Smith, Berry and Pulford (1997) describe communication as the act of sending information from the mind of one person to the mind of another person. Similarly, Churchill Jr. and Peter (1998) describe communication as the transmission of a message from a sender to a receiver, such that both understand it the same way. Mcshane and Glinow (2000) in turn, define communication as the process by which information is transmitted and understood between two or more people. 3

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Types of Communication tools Communication tools can be divided into two types: Personal communication tools: Personal communication tools are those in which two or more people communicate with one another. Word of mouth is the primary means of personal communication. There are various other Medias of personal communication also such as e-mail. Non-personal communications: Non-personal communication tools are those in which communication do not occur in person-to person but occur through some other media. National and regional newspapers and magazines, television, satellite, and cable television are some of the means of non-personal communication. Components of Communication: For effective communication to occur, Dubrin (1997) stipulates that six components must be present: a communication source or sender, a message, a channel, a receiver, feedback and the environment. The source (sender) is the initiator of a communication event who is usually a person attempting to send a spoken, written, sign language, or nonverbal message to another person(s). Here, the perceived authority and experience of the sender are important factors influencing how much attention the message will receive. Message is the purpose or idea to be conveyed. Many factors influence how a message is received. Among them are clarity, the alertness of the receiver, the complexity and length of the message, and how the information is organized. Channel (medium). This concerns the way the message is transmitted. In organizations, 4

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