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Note for Software Engineering - SE by palak palak

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See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/220689590 Fundamentals of software engineering (2. ed.). BOOK · JANUARY 2003 Source: DBLP CITATIONS READS 17 2,288 3 AUTHORS: Carlo Ghezzi Mehdi Jazayeri Politecnico di Milano University of Lugano 291 PUBLICATIONS 5,642 CITATIONS 153 PUBLICATIONS 3,207 CITATIONS SEE PROFILE SEE PROFILE Dino Mandrioli Politecnico di Milano 132 PUBLICATIONS 2,498 CITATIONS SEE PROFILE Available from: Carlo Ghezzi Retrieved on: 27 December 2015

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Notes on the lecture Fundamentals of Software Engineering I Prof. Dr.-Ing. Axel Hunger UNIVERSITÄT D U I S B U R G E S S E N © Institute of Computer Engineering, April 2009 (Version 2.1 / 1999) 0-1 0-2

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WARNUNG preliminary lecture notes Dieser Text beschreibt in komprimierter Form die Inhalte der Vorlesung „Grundlagen der Programmentwurfstechnik 1“ wie sie regelmäßig an der Universität Duisburg-Essen für Studierende in den Bachelor Studiengängen der Abteilung Elektrotechnik- und Informationstechnik gelesen wird. Die überwiegend ausländischen Studierenden haben immer wieder den Wunsch nach englischsprachigen Vorlesungsunterlagen geäußert. Aus diesem Grund wird seit 1999 der vorliegende Text den Studierenden zur Verfügung gestellt. Es wird dringend zur kritischen Verwendung des Textes geraten, da die abschließende Korrektur noch aussteht und einige Bilder noch nicht ins Englische übersetzt sind. Außerdem sind inhaltliche Anpassungen des Stoffes in den letzten Jahres erfolgt, die sich noch nicht im Text wiederfinden. Daher soll der Text in erster Linie vorlesungsbegleitend eingesetzt werden und die eigenen Vorlesungsmitschriften ergänzen, diese aber auf keinen Fall ersetzen. Duisburg, im April 2009 0-3 0-4

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Table of Contents Introduction 1 The Life Cycle of Software Cost development in Computer Systems ........................................................................... 1.1 Classic Errors in Software Design ............................................................................... 1.2 The Impact of Errors on the Production Process ......................................................... 1.3 Commercial Aspects .................................................................................................... 2 General Model Construction 2.1 Functional Models ....................................................................................................... 2.1.1 Corresponding Machine Model ............................................................................. 2.1.1.1 State Diagrams ............................................................................................... 2.1.1.2 State Matrix ................................................................................................... 2.1.1.3 State Tables ................................................................................................... 2.2 Data Models ................................................................................................................. 2.2.1 Layer Architecture ................................................................................................. 2.2.2 Basics of Data Modelling ...................................................................................... 2.2.3 Modelling Languages for Data and Information ................................................... 2.2.3.1 Practical Applications of Data Models in Electrical Engineering ................. 2.2.3.2 The Entity Relationship Model (ERM) ......................................................... 2.2.3.3 The Entity Relationship Diagram .................................................................. 2.2.3.4 Implementing an ERM in PASCAL .............................................................. 3 Structured Design 3.1 Structured Analysis (SA) ............................................................................................ 3.2 Structured Design (SD) ............................................................................................... 3.3 The Separation of Essential Model and Implementational Model.................................. 3.4 Characteristic Features of Modelling .......................................................................... 3.4.1 Structure of Modelling Phases according to WARD/MELLOR ............................... 3.4.2 Differences between WARD/MELLOR'S and DEMARCO'S Procedure ....................... 3.4.3 Breaking Away from the Von Neumann Structure ............................................... 3.4.4 The Separation of Data and Control ...................................................................... 3.4.5 Continuity and Discontinuity ................................................................................ 3.5 Modelling and Downward Levelling........................................................................... 3.6 Storage and Transformations ....................................................................................... 3.7 Task Summary for Constructing the Essential Model ................................................. 1-1 1-5 1-13 1-14 2-1 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-7 2-7 2-8 2-12 2-13 2-17 2-18 2-20 3-1 3-6 3-7 3-9 3-9 3-9 3-10 3-10 3-12 3-12 3-13 3-20 0-3 4 Implementational Model 4.1 Processes and Process Administration ........................................................................ 4.2 The Structure of Multi-Tasking Operating Systems ................................................... 4.3 Modelling of the Implementation ................................................................................ 4.3.1 Constructing the Implementation Model (IM) ...................................................... 4.3.2 Constructing the Processor Model ........................................................................ 4.3.3 Defining Goals for Module Design........................................................................ 4.4 Process Administration with an Operating System ..................................................... 4.5 Process Administration with Programming Languages .............................................. 4-1 4-4 4-7 4-10 4-14 4-21 4-27 4-28 5 User Interfaces 5.1 Siginificance................................................................................................................. 5.2 Aids for User Interface Design .................................................................................... 5.2.1 Toolkits................................................................................................................... 5.2.2 Development Systems ........................................................................................... 5.3 Design Methods ........................................................................................................... 5.3.1 Context-free Languages ........................................................................................ 5.3.2 State Diagrams ....................................................................................................... 5.3.3 Event-controlled Representation ........................................................................... 5.4 Design of Optical Characteristics................................................................................. 5.4.1 The Classic Screen ................................................................................................ 5.4.2 Colour Graphics ..................................................................................................... 5.4.3 Input Systems ........................................................................................................ 5-1 5-9 5-9 5-10 5-10 5-10 5-11 5-13 5-13 5-15 5-16 5-17 6 Software Testing 6.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 6.2 Principles ..................................................................................................................... 6.3 Methods ....................................................................................................................... 6.3.1 Inspection, Review, Walkthrough ......................................................................... 6.3.2 Test Case Design ................................................................................................... 6.4 Comparing Top-down- and Bottom-up Testing .......................................................... 6-1 6-2 6-2 6-2 6-5 6-8 0-4

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