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Note for Industrial Automation And Mechatronics - IAM By Er.Ramji Tripathi

  • Industrial Automation And Mechatronics - IAM
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  • Dr. A PJ Abdul Kalam Tech University Lucknow - AKTU
  • Mechanical Engineering
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TYPES OF AUTOMATION Fixed Automation : • Sequence of processing operations is fixed by the equipment configuration. • Sequence of simple operations. • Integration and coordination of many operation in one equipment. • Typical features : 1. 2. 3. 4. High initial cost. Custom engineered equipment. High production rates. Inflexibility. Programmable Automation : • Production equipment is designed with capability to change sequence of operation to accommodate different product configurations. • Operation sequence controlled by PROGRAM. • Typical features : 1. 2. 3. 4. High investment in general purpose equipment. Low production rate. Flexibility to deal with product change. High suitability for batch production. • Typical cycle for a product : 1. Set up and reprogramming. 2. Batch production of parts. • Examples : 1. NC Machine Tools. 2. Industrial Robots. 3. PLCs. Flexible Automation : • Extension of programmable automation. • Produce variety of parts with virtually no time lost for changeovers from one part style to next. • No production time lost in set up and reconfiguration. • System can produce various mixes of parts. • Example : FMS. • Typical Features : - High Investment for custom engineered equipments. - Continuous production of mix of products. Er Ramji Tripathi, Assistant professor, Mech Engg. Departt. Rajkiya Engineering College, Banda

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- Medium production rates. - Flexible to deal with product design variations. Three Type of Automation : Automation Principles & Strategies : • Automation is not always the right answer for a given production situation. • Three approaches for dealing with automation projects : 1.The USA Principle. 2.Ten strategies for Automation. 3.Automation Migration Strategy. The USA Principle : • It is common Sense approach to automation and process improvement. • USA Stands for : - U : understand the existing process. - S : simplify the process. - A : automate the process. U: Understanding the Process : • Study current process in detail. • Find answers : 1. What are inputs? 2. What are outputs? Er Ramji Tripathi, Assistant professor, Mech Engg. Departt. Rajkiya Engineering College, Banda

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3. 4. 5. 6. What exactly happens between input & output? What is function of process? How does it add value to the product? What are sequence of operations? Simplify & Automate : • Simplify the Process : (a) Simplify the existing process. (b) Generate answers to queries : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. What is the purpose of each step and transport? Is this step necessary? Can this step be eliminated? Does this step uses the most appropriate technology? How can the step be simplified? Can steps be combined? Automate the steps in process. Ten Strategies for Automation : • Specialization of operations : Special purpose equipment to perform one operation with greatest possible efficiency. • Combined operations : Reducing number of distinct production machines. • Simultaneous Operations : Reducing total processing time. • Integration of operations : Linking several workstation into a single integrated mechanism. • Increased flexibility : To achieve max utilization of equipment. • Improved material handling and storage : Reducing non-productive time. • On-line inspection : Corrections to the process during manufacturing. • Process control and optimization. • Plant operations and control. • CIM. Automation Migration Strategy : • Phase 1 : Manual Production using single station manned cells operating independently. • Phase 2 : Automated Production using single-station automated cells operating independently. • Phase 3 : Automated integrated production using a multistation automated system with automated material handling. Er Ramji Tripathi, Assistant professor, Mech Engg. Departt. Rajkiya Engineering College, Banda

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Programmable Logic Controllers(PLC`S) Introduction : • A PLC (i.e. Programmable Logic Controller) is a device that was invented to replace the necessary sequential relay circuits for machine control. • The PLC works by looking at its inputs and depending upon their state, turning on/off its outputs. The user enters a program, usually via software, that gives the desired results. PLC Example : • Let's assume that when a switch turns on we want to turn a solenoid on for 5 seconds and then turn it off regardless of how long the switch is on for. • We can do this with a simple external timer. But what if the process included 10 switches and solenoids? We would need 10 external timers. What if the process also needed to count how many times the switches individually turned on? We need a lot of external counters. PLC - need : • The bigger the process the more is need for a PLC. • Simply program the PLC to count its inputs and turn the solenoids on for the specified time. • The primary reason for designing PLC was eliminating the large cost involved in replacing the complicated relay based machine control systems. Inside PLC : • The PLC mainly consists of : - A CPU, - Memory areas, and - Appropriate circuits to receive input/output data. • We can actually consider the PLC to be a box full of hundreds or thousands of separate relays, counters, timers and data storage locations. Er Ramji Tripathi, Assistant professor, Mech Engg. Departt. Rajkiya Engineering College, Banda

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