The Operational Amplifier (Op-Amp): The ideal Op-Amp, Inverting and non-inverting configurations, Difference amplifier, CMRR, Application of Op-Amp (Instrumentation amplifier, Summing amplifier, Integrator and Differentiator).
Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs): Simplified structure and physical operation of n-p-n and p-n-p transistors in the active region, Current-voltage characteristics of BJT, BJT as an amplifier and as a switch.
Feedback Amplifiers and Oscillators: General feedback structure, Properties and advantages of negative feedback, Basic principles of sinusoidal oscillators, The Barkhausen criterion, Op-Amp Oscillator circuits (Wien-Bridge oscillator, RC phase-shift oscillator and Crystal oscillator).
Logic Gates and Boolean Algebra: The inverter, The AND, OR, NAND NOR, Exclusive-OR and Exclusive-NOR gate, Boolean operations and expressions, Laws and Rules of Boolean algebra, DeMorgan’s theorem, Boolean analysis of logic circuits, Standard forms of Boolean expressions, Boolean expression and truth table.
Combinational Logic and Their Functions: Basic combinational logic circuits, Implementation of combinational logic, The universal properties of NAND and NOR gates, Basic adders, Multiplexers and Demultiplexers., Elementary treatment of Latches, Basic concepts of Memory (RAMs)