EE8451 LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS AND APPLICATIONS (ANNA UNIVERSITY – REGULATION 2017) II YEAR / IV SEMESTER EEE SUBJECT NOTES
SYLLABUS EE8451 LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS AND APPLICATIONS L T P C 3 0 0 3 OBJECTIVES: To impart knowledge on the following topics • Signal analysis using Op-amp based circuits. • Applications of Op-amp. • Functional blocks and the applications of special ICs like Timers, PLL circuits, regulator Circuits. • IC fabrication procedure. UNIT I IC FABRICATION 9 IC classification, fundamental of monolithic IC technology, epitaxial growth, masking and etching, diffusion of impurities. Realisation of monolithic ICs and packaging. Fabrication of diodes, capacitance, resistance, FETs and PV Cell. UNIT II CHARACTERISTICS OF OPAMP 9 Ideal OP-AMP characteristics, DC characteristics, AC characteristics, differential amplifier; frequency response of OP-AMP; Basic applications of op-amp – Inverting and Non-inverting Amplifiers, summer, differentiator and integrator-V/I & I/V converters. UNIT III APPLICATIONS OF OPAMP 9 Instrumentation amplifier and its applications for transducer Bridge, Log and Antilog Amplifiers- Analog multiplier & Divider, first and second order active filters, comparators, multivibrators, waveform generators, clippers, clampers, peak detector, S/H circuit, D/A converter (R- 2R ladder and weighted resistor types), A/D converters using opamps. UNIT IV SPECIAL ICs 9 Functional block, characteristics of 555 Timer and its PWM application - IC-566 voltage controlled oscillator IC; 565-phase locked loop IC, AD633 Analog multiplier ICs. UNIT V APPLICATION ICs 9 AD623 Instrumentation Amplifier and its application as load cell weight measurement – IC voltage regulators –LM78XX, LM79XX; Fixed voltage regulators its application as Linear power supply - LM317, 723 Variability voltage regulators, switching regulator- SMPS – ICL 8038 function generator IC. TOTAL : 45 PERIODS OUTCOMES: Ability to acquire knowledge in IC fabrication procedure Ability to analyze the characteristics of Op-Amp
To understand the importance of Signal analysis using Op-amp based circuits. Functional blocks and the applications of special ICs like Timers, PLL circuits, regulator Circuits. To understand and acquire knowledge on the Applications of Op-amp Ability to understand and analyse, linear integrated circuits their Fabrication and Application. TEXT BOOKS: 1. David A. Bell, ‘Op-amp & Linear ICs’, Oxford, 2013. 2. D. Roy Choudhary, Sheil B. Jani, ‘Linear Integrated Circuits’, II edition, New Age, 2003. 3. Ramakant A.Gayakward, ‘Op-amps and Linear Integrated Circuits’, IV edition, Pearson Education, 2003 / PHI. 2000. REFERENCES 1. Fiore,”Opamps & Linear Integrated Circuits Concepts & applications”, Cengage, 2010. 2. Floyd ,Buchla,”Fundamentals of Analog Circuits, Pearson, 2013. 3. Jacob Millman, Christos C.Halkias, ‘Integrated Electronics - Analog and Digital circuits system’, McGraw Hill, 2003. 4. Robert F.Coughlin, Fredrick F. Driscoll, ‘Op-amp and Linear ICs’, Pearson, 6th edition,2012. 5. Sergio Franco, ‘Design with Operational Amplifiers and Analog Integrated Circuits’, Mc Graw Hill, 2016. 6. Muhammad H. Rashid,’ Microelectronic Circuits Analysis and Design’ Cengage Learning, 2011.
UNIT -I IC FABRICATION Integrated Circuits: An integrated circuit (IC) is a miniature, low cost electronic circuit consisting of active and passive components fabricated together on a single crystal of silicon. The active components are transistors and diodes and passive components are resistors and capacitors. Advantages of integrated circuits: Miniaturization and hence increased equipment density. Cost reduction due to batch processing. Increased system reliability due to the elimination of soldered joints. Improved functional performance. Matched devices. Increased operating speeds. Reduction in power consumption Classification: Integrated circuits can be classified into analog, digital and mixed signal (both analog and digital on the same chip). Based upon above requirement two different IC technology namely Monolithic Technology and Hybrid Technology have been developed. In monolithic IC ,all circuit components ,both active and passive elements and their interconnections are manufactured into or on top of a single chip of silicon. In hybrid circuits, separate component parts are attached to a ceramic substrate and interconnected by means of either metallization pattern or wire bounds. Digital integrated circuits can contain anything from one to millions of logic gates, flip-flops, multiplexers, and other circuits in a few square millimeters. The small size of these circuits allows high speed, low power dissipation, and reduced manufacturing cost compared with boardlevel integration. These digital ICs, typically microprocessors, DSPs, and micro controllers work using binary mathematics to process "one" and "zero" signals. Analog ICs, such as sensors, power management circuits, and operational amplifiers, work by processing continuous signals. They perform functions like amplification, active filtering, demodulation, mixing, etc. Analog ICs ease the burden on circuit designers by having expertly designed analog circuits available instead of designing a difficult analog circuit from scratch. ICs can also combine analog and digital circuits on a single chip to create functions such as A/D