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Note for Computer Graphics - CG By Smruti Sarangi

  • Computer Graphics - CG
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Computer Graphics By: Smruti Smaraki Sarangi Assistant Professor IMS Unison University, Dehradun

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CONTENTS Sl.no Chapter Page 1 Introduction to graphics, and its application 2-6 2 Video display devices: CRT, Flat panel display, Raster Scan system, Random scan system, Input and Output devices, Graphics software and Functions, GUI. 7-29 3 Line drawing algorithms, Circle generating and ellipse generating algorithms, Filled area primitives: flood-fill, boundary-fill and scan-line polygon fill algorithm and antialiasing. 30-59 4 Line attributes, Curve attributes, Area-fill attributes, Character attributes, Bundled and Marker Attributes 60-75 5 2D basic transformation, 2D composite transformation, Matrix representation and homogeneous co-ordinate, Transformation between coordinate system and Affine transformation 76-102 6 Viewing Pipeline, View Co-ordinate reference frame, Window to viewport Transformation, Clipping and Types of Clipping 103-125 7 Representation of point, 3D Transformation and its types 126-149 8 3D Viewing, Projection and its types, Viewing Pipeline. 3D Clipping and Viewport Clipping 150-171 9 Visible surface detection algorithms (back-face detection, z-buffer, a-buffer, scan-line method, depths sorting method) Ray-tracing algorithm and its surface intersection calculation and ray casting method. 172-197 10 Curved line and surfaces, BSP Trees and Octree, Spline Representation and specifications, B-Spline curves and surfaces, Bezier curve and surfaces 198-232 11 Basic Illumination Models, Halftoning and Dithering Techniques, Polygon Rendering Methods, Animation Techniques and Morphing, Hierarchical modeling structures, Displaying light Intensities and continuous tone image 233-258 1

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CHAPTER -1 COMPUTER GRAPHICS: Computer graphics are graphics created using computers and more generally, the representation and manipulation of image data by a computer with help from specialized software and hardware. The development of computer graphics has made computers easier to interact with, and better for understanding and interpreting many types of data. Developments in computer graphics have a profound impact on many types of media and have revolutionized animation, movies and the video game industry. APPLICATION OF COMPUTER GRAPHICS: Computers have become a powerful tool for the rapid and economical production of pictures. Advances in computer technology have made interactive computer graphics a practical tool. Today, computer graphics is used in the areas as science, engineering, medicine, business, industry, government, art, entertainment, advertising, education and training. I. COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN (CAD): A major use of computer graphics is in design purposes, generally referred to as CAD. Computer Aided Design methods are now routinely used in the design of buildings, automobiles, aircraft, watercraft, spacecraft, computers, text-tiles and many other products. For some design applications, objects are first displayed in wireframe outline from that shows the overall shapes. Software packages for CAD 2

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applications typically provide the designer with the multi-window environment. Animations are often used in CAD applications. Realistic displays of architectural designs permit both architect and their clients to study the appearance of a single building or a group of buildings. With virtual reality systems, designers can even go for a simulated “walk” through the room or around the outsides of buildings to better appreciate to overall effect of a particular design. In addition to realistic exterior building displays architecture, CAD packages also provide facilities for experimenting with 3-dimensional interior layouts and lighting. II. PRESENTATION GRAPHICS: It is used to produce illustrations for reports or to generate 35 mm slides or transparencies for use with projectors. It is commonly used in summarize financial, statistical, mathematics, scientific and economic data for research reports, managerial reports, consumer information, bulletins and other types of reports. E.g.: Bar Charts, Line Graphs, Surface Graphs and Pie Charts. Three dimensional graphs are used simply for effect they can provide a more dramatic or more attractive presentation of data relationships. III. COMPUTER ART: Computer Graphics methods are widely used in both fine art and commercial art applications. 3

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