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Note for Highway and Traffic Engineering - HTE By madhu anand

  • Highway and Traffic Engineering - HTE
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1 TRAFFIC ENGINEERING Traffic engineering DEF:“It is the phase of engineering which deals with planning, geometric design, traffic operations of roads, streets and highways, their networks, terminals, abutting lands, relationship with other mode of transportation for the achievement of safe, efficient and convenient movement of persons goods” Scope of traffic engineering I. The basic object of the traffic is the achieve efficient free and rapid flow of traffic with least number of traffic accidents The surface details sight distances requirements. Horizontal and vertical alignment. Intersections and parking facilities are to be suitably designed for better traffic performance The study of traffic of traffic engg. may be divide in to 6 major phases II. SVCE, DEPARTMENT OF CIVILENGIN EERING III.       IV. Traffic characteristics Traffic studies and analysis Traffic operation –control and regulation Planning and analysis Geometric design Administration and management The various phases of traffic engineering are implemented with help of  Engineering  Enforcement  Education 3E Enforcement: is usually made through traffic laws, regulations, and control. Education : may be possible by sufficient publicity and through schools and television. Engineering : deals with the improvement of road geometric, providing additional road facilities and installation of suitable design traffic control devices. FUNCTIONS OF TRAFFIC ENGINEERING:   Planning and travel forecasting: To manage the future requirements of safe, comfort and economic travel. Collection of the factual information: collection analysis and interpretation of factual data’s the main function of traffic engg. The data collected from different types of field’s survey and studies helps in planning and designing new facility.

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2 TRAFFIC ENGINEERING    Research: To develop more efficient methods and techniques research is essential. The various areas if importance under this are read design factors, safety, economic impact etc. Traffic accident recording: If proper data recording and analysis is done on a scientific basis then accidents can be avoided. Design and placement of control and regulatory measures. The main object of control device and regulation is to control the road user, direct him in a better way. Traffic characteristics SVCE, DEPARTMENT OF CIVILENGIN EERING The various elements in traffic operations are  The road user(Driver and pedestrian)  The vehicle  The highway(Transport facility)  The environment Road user characteristics Temporary Road Users Permanent Physical Physochological Mental

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3 TRAFFIC ENGINEERING Eye movement Colour vision Glare vision Vision Perception of space Hearing Physical Strength Reaction time Attentiveness Pshychological SVCE, DEPARTMENT OF CIVILENGIN EERING Fear Anger Impatience Attitude Matuirity Motivation Emotion Learning

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4 Mental TRAFFIC ENGINEERING Knowledge Skill Intelligence Experience Temporary Alcohol Drug Work load Illness SVCE, DEPARTMENT OF CIVILENGIN EERING Fatigue ROAD USER CHARACTERSTICS The human elements is involved in actions of the road users either as pedestrian cyclist, cart driver or motorist. The physical, mental and emotional characteristics of human beings affect the ability to operate motor vehicle safety or to service as a pedestrian Physical CHARACTERSTICS 1. Vision EYE MOVEMENTS AND VISUAL CONCENTRATION Road user will have to shift his eye with movement of traffic and to obtain clear vision of the object. For this purpose eye makes and different types of movements and there is a time lapse in moving and fixing eye on different objects.  Fixing of eye at the object takes 0.1s to 0.3 seconds.  Jumping of eye from one point of fixation to next takes 0.125s to 0.235 seconds.  Both the eyes should shift (converge or diverge) together for moving objects on the road. This converging or diverging of eyes takes 0.3s to 0.5 seconds.

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