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Note for Electrical Machines 1 - EM1 by Abhishek Kumar

  • Electrical Machines 1 - EM1
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  • Biju Patnaik University of Technology Rourkela Odisha - BPUT
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EE2251 www.Vidyarthiplus.com ELECTRICAL MACHINES I A Course Material on Electrical machines I By Mrs. A.Saranya Assistant PROFESSOR DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING SASURIE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING VIJAYAMANGALAM – 638 056 SCE 1 ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING www.Vidyarthiplus.com

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EE2251 www.Vidyarthiplus.com ELECTRICAL MACHINES I QUALITY CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the e-course material Subject Code : EE 2251 Scubject : Electrical Machines I Class : II Year EEE being prepared by me and it meets the knowledge requirement of the university curriculum. Signature of the Author Name: Designation: This is to certify that the course material being prepared by Mrs A.Saranya is of adequate quality. She has referred more than five books among them minimum one is from aboard author. Signature of HD Name: S.SRIRAM SEAL SCE 2 ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING www.Vidyarthiplus.com

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EE2251 www.Vidyarthiplus.com ELECTRICAL MACHINES I PAGE NO S.NO CONTENT CHAPTER I MAGNETIC CIRCUITS AND MAGNETIC MATERIAL 1.1 Introduction 8 1.2 Magnetic Circuits 8 1.2.1 Magnetic Material 10 1.2.2Magnetic Effect By Electric Current 11 1.3 Laws Governing Magnetic Circuits 11 1.3.1. Magnetic flux 11 1.3.2. Magnetic field strength 11 1.3.3.Flux density 12 1.3.4.Magneto-Motive Force 12 1.3.5.Magnetic Reluctance 12 1.3.6. Residual Magnetism 12 1.3.7. Magnetic Saturation 12 1.3.8. End Rule 12 13 1.3.9. Lenz’s Law 13 1.3.10. Electro magnetic induction 13 1.3.11. Fleming's Right Hand Rule 1.4 Flux Linkage, Inductance and Energy 13 13 1.4.1. Flux Linkage 14 1.4.2 Inductance and Energy 1.5 Statically And Dynamically Induced Emf 14 14 1.5.1 Statically Induced Emf 14 1.5.1.1 Self Inductucedemf 15 1.5.1.2 Mutually Induced EMF 15 1.5.2 Dynamically induced EMF 1.6 Properties of Magnetic Materials 15 15 1.6.1 Magnetic Hysteresis 16 1.6.2 Hysteresis Loop 1.7 Iron or Core losses 16 1.7.1. Hysteresis loss 16 17 1.7.2 Eddy current loss 18 1.7.3 Mechanical losses 1.8 Ac Operation Of Magnetic Circuits 18 1.9 Transformer As A Magnetically Coupled Circuit 19 1.10 Solved problems 21 CHAPTER 2 TRANSFORMER 2.1 Principle Of Operation 26 2.1.1 Basic Principle 26 2.1.2 An ideal Transformer 32 2.1.3 Induction Law 32 2.2 Equivalent Circuit 34 2.3 Transformer Losses 35 2.4 Transformer Tests 37 3 SCE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING www.Vidyarthiplus.com

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EE2251 www.Vidyarthiplus.com ELECTRICAL MACHINES I 2.4.1 Open-circuit or No-load Test 37 2.4.2 Short-circuit or Impedance Test. 38 2.5 Efficiency 39 2.6 Voltage Regulation 41 2.6.1 Circuit Diagram 42 2.6.2 Procedure 42 2.6.3 Observation Table 42 2.6.4 Calculation 42 2.6.5 Discussion 42 2.7 Auto Transformer 43 2.8 Three-phase autotransformer connection 44 2.8.1 Design, Vector group 44 2.8.2 Three-Leg Transformer 45 2.9 Parallel Operation Of Transformers 46 2.10 Tap Changing 48 SOLVED PROBLEMS 52 CHAPTER- 3 ELECTROMECHANICAL ENERGY CONVERSION AND CONCEPTS INROTATING MACHINES 3.1 Energy In Magnetic Systems 58 3.1.1Electromechanical-Energy-Conversion Principles 58 3.1.2Forces and Torques in Magnetic Field Systems 58 3.2 The Field Energy 59 3.2.1 Energy Balance 59 3.3 The Co Energy 60 3.4 Force In A Singly Excited Magnetic Field System 62 3.4.1 Model & Analysis 62 3.5 Force In A Multiply Excited Magnetic Field System 64 3.6 MMf Of Distributed Windings 67 3.6.1 Alternating Field Distribution 67 3.6.2 Rotating field 68 3.6.3 Three-phase winding 68 3.6.4 Determination of slot mmf for different moments 69 (temporal) 3.7 Magnetic Fields In Rotating Machines 69 3.7.1 Winding factor 69 3.7.2 Distribution factor 72 3.7.3 Pitch factor 73 3.8 Rotating Mmf Waves 73 3.8.1 Voltage induction caused by influence of rotating field 74 3.8.2 Flux linkage 75 3.8.3 Induced voltage, slip 75 3.9 Torque In Ac And Dc Machines 76 SOLVED PROBLEMS 78 CHAPTER 4 DC GENERATOR 4.1 Principles Of D.C. Machines 83 4.2 Construction of DC. Machines 83 4.2.1 Frame 83 4.2.2 Yoke 83 4.2.3 End Shields or Bearings 84 4.2.4 Main poles 84 4.2.5 Armature 84 4.2.6 Commutator 85 4 SCE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING www.Vidyarthiplus.com

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