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Note for Environmental Science and Engineering - ESE By Arumugam Nainar

  • Environmental Science and Engineering - ESE
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Environmental Science &Engineering UNIT-1 ENVIRONMENT, ECOSYSTEM AND BIODIVERSITY 1.1 INTRODUCTION Environment implies surroundings. All natural resources are essential for the survival of mankind –land, air, water and fauna. The degradation of the environment has become a serious problem and the pollution of water, air and soil leads to loss of valuable natural resources Environment is a multidimensional system of complex interrelationships in a continuing state of change. The Environment is derived from the French word “environ” meaning “surroundings”. Each and everything around us is called as Environment. Environment: The sum of living and nonliving things around us influencing one another Environmental science: It is the study of Environment its biotic and abiotic components and their interrelationship. Types of Environment Natural Environment Man made Environment Natural Environment It consists of four systems: the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. E.g.) soil, water, air Manmade Environment It is the most powerful Environmental agent Man is modifying the Environment according to his own needs Page 1

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Environmental Science &Engineering Man applied the advanced scientific technologies to lead comfortable life It affects the natural Environment rapidly E.g.) house, road, school Components of environment: Consist of 3 components 1. A biotic (or) non living 2. Biotic (or) living 3. Energy component Abiotic component: 3 categories atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere. Atmosphere: The air that covers the earth is known as atmosphere. It is 500 km from earth. It is essential for all living organisms. 78% N2, 21% O2 and 1% other gases. Troposphere (1 to 15 km) 75% atmospheric air Contain moisture Stratosphere (18 to 50 km) Consists of large amount of O3 Free from moisture and clouds Prevents UV radiation from sun Mesosphere (50 to 85 km) Less ozone more nitrogen oxide Lithosphere: It consists of soil and rock components of earth Hydrosphere: The aquatic envelope of the earth. It includes oceans, lakes, streams, river and water vapour. In the hydrosphere 97% of water is not suitable for drinking and only3% is fresh water. Biotic or living component: (e.g.) Animals, plants and micro organisms. Page 2

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Environmental Science &Engineering Biosphere: Interaction of biological environment with physical environment is called biosphere. Energy component: Flow energy across biotic and Abiotic components. It plays an important role in living organisms. (e.g.) solar energy, nuclear energy, geo thermal energy etc. Fig: Structure of atmosphere Scope of the Environment New man introduced a three levels towards Environment Such as Environmental studies, Environment Science , Environmental engineering Environmental study is an important tool to educate the people for preserving quality Environment .the main scope of Environmental studies include, To get an awareness to the total Environment and its related problems To motivate the active participation in Environmental protection To know the necessity of conservation of natural resources. This study enables environmentally literate citizens to make appropriate judgment and decisions for the protection and improvement of the earth. This study exposes the problems of over pollution, health, hygiene etc and the role of arts, science and technology in eliminating the evils from the society. Page 3

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Environmental Science &Engineering Importance of Environmental studies Environmental studies concern with Environmental disturbances and minimizing of their impact through society The air we breathe, the water we drink, the food we consume and land we live on are all contaminated by the industrial activities. There is no zero pollution industry. Because of the lack of self discipline and not worrying about our future generation, the valuable resources are polluted. To solve the above problems, the knowledge of Environmental studies is very important By Environmental studies ,people will understand the concept of “need of development without destruction of Environment” Through this study, people can gain the knowledge of different types of Environment and the effects of different Environmental hazards. Environmental studies inform the people about their effective role in protecting the Environment. Environmental studies have a direct relation to the quality of life Environmental education is an agent of change and a step toward community empowerment 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF RISK AND HAZARDS IN THE ENVIRONMENT HAZARD Hazard is any substance that can hurt you or make you ill.It is expressed in degree. Degree of hazard is the function of risk ,exposure, vulnerability and response Hazard =f( risk x exposure x vulnerability x response) Risk Risk is the frequency of events causing losses Types of hazards Hazard are of the following types a. physical hazards b. chemical hazards c. Biological hazards (or) Bio-hazards Page 4

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