EPA 100/B-07/001 February 2007 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Nanotechnology White Paper Prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by members of the Nanotechnology Workgroup, a group of EPA’s Science Policy Council Science Policy Council U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Washington, DC 20460
ii EPA Nanotechnology White Paper DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed in accordance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency policy and approved for publication and distribution. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement of recommendation for use. Notwithstanding any use of mandatory language such as "must" and "require" in this document with regard to or to reflect scientific practices, this document does not and should not be construed to create any legal rights or requirements. Cover Images: Left: Computer images of various forms of carbon nanotubes. Images courtesy of Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory Right: Computer image of a dendrimer. Image courtesy of Dendritic NanoTechnologies, Inc. Title Page Image: Computer image of a C-60 Fullerene. Laurence Libelo, U.S. EPA.
iii EPA Nanotechnology White Paper Nanotechnology White Paper Workgroup Co-Chairs Jeff Morris Office of Research and Development Jim Willis Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances Science Policy Council Staff Kathryn Gallagher Office of the Science Advisor Subgroup Co-Chairs External Coordination Steve Lingle, ORD Dennis Utterback, ORD Ecological Effects Anne Fairbrother, ORD Tala Henry, OPPTS Vince Nabholz, OPPTS Risk Management Flora Chow, OPPT EPA Research Strategy Barbara Karn, ORD Nora Savage, ORD Human Exposures Scott Prothero, OPPT Converging Technologies Nora Savage, ORD Risk Assessment Phil Sayre, OPPTS Environmental Fate Bob Boethling, OPPTS Laurence Libelo, OPPTS John Scalera, OEI Pollution Prevention Walter Schoepf, Region 2 Physical-Chemical Properties Tracy Williamson, OPPTS Environmental Detection and Analysis John Scalera, OEI Richard Zepp, ORD Sustainability and Society Diana Bauer, ORD Michael Brody, OCFO Health Effects Deborah Burgin, OEI Kevin Dreher, ORD Statutes, Regulations, and Policies Jim Alwood, OPPT Public Communications and Outreach Anita Street, ORD
iv EPA Nanotechnology White Paper Workgroup Members Suzanne Ackerman, OPA Kent Anapolle, OPPTS Fred Arnold, OPPTS Ayaad Assaad, OPPTS Dan Axelrad, OPEI John Bartlett, OPPTS Sarah Bauer, ORD Norman Birchfield, OSA John Blouin, OPPT Jim Blough, Region 5 Pat Bonner, OPEI William Boyes, ORD Gordon Cash, OPPTS Gilbert Castellanos, OIA Tai-Ming Chang, Region 3 Paul Cough, OIA Lynn Delpire, OPPTS John Diamante, OIA Christine Dibble, OPA Jeremiah Duncan, AAAS fellow, OPPTS Thomas Forbes, OEI Conrad Flessner, OPPTS Jack Fowle, ORD Elisabeth Freed, OECA Sarah Furtak, OW Hend Galal-Gorchev, OW David Giamporcaro, OPPTS Michael Gill, ORD liaison for Region 9 Collette Hodes, OPPTS Gene Jablonowski, Region 5 Lee Hofman, OSWER Joe Jarvis, ORD Y’Vonne Jones-Brown, OPPTS Edna Kapust, OPPTS Nagu Keshava, ORD David Lai, OPPTS Skip Laitner, OAR Warren Layne, Region 5 Do Young Lee, OPPTS Virginia Lee, OPPTS Monique Lester, OARM, on detail to OIA Michael Lewandowski, ORD Bill Linak, ORD David Lynch, OPPTS Tanya Maslak, OSA intern Paul Matthai, OPPT Carl Mazza, OAR Nhan Nguyen, OPPTS Carlos Nunez, ORD Onyemaechi Nweke, OPEI Marti Otto, OSWER Manisha Patel, OGC Steve Potts, OW Mary Reiley, OW Mary Ross, OAR Bill Russo, ORD Mavis Sanders, OEI Bernie Schorle, Region 5 Paul Solomon, ORD Timothy Taylor, OSWER Maggie Theroux-Fieldsteel, Region 1 Stephanie Thornton, OW Alan Van Arsdale, Region 1 William Wallace, ORD Barb Walton, ORD