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Note for Mass Transfer-I - MT1 by Surajit Mishra

  • Mass Transfer-I - MT1
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  • Biju Patnaik University of Technology Rourkela Odisha - BPUT
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Mass Transfer-I BIJU PATNAIK UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ROURKELA, ODISHA, INDIA LECTURER NOTES PCCH4302 MASS TRANSFER - I (3-0-0) Module - I Introduction to Mass transfer operations, molecular diffusion in fluids, binary solutions, Fick‟s law, equation of continuity, steady state equimolal counter current diffusion, Stefan‟s equation, diffusivity of gases and liquids, application of molecular diffusion, mass transfer coefficients, in laminar and turbulent flow, Film theory, Penetration theory, surface-renewal theories, analogy between mass, heat and momentum transfer. Module – II Principle of VLE for binary systems, phase diagrams, relative volatility, ideal solutions, azeotropes, enthalpy concentration diagrams, flash vaporization, partial condensation, differential distillation steam distillation, azeotropic and extractive distillation. Continuous distillation: Mc Cabe - Thiele method, Ponchon - Savarit method, Tray efficiencies, introduction to multi component distillation. Module - III Absorption : Solubility of gases in liquids, two components system, multi component system, ideal and non - ideal solutions, choice of solvent for absorption, single component absorption material balance, counter current multistage operations, dilute gas mixtures, non - isothermal operation, tray efficiency, continuous contact equipment, HETP, HTU, NTU concepts for single component absorption. Module - IV Humidification Operations : Definition of fundamental terms, Psychometric charts, theory of adiabatic saturation and wet bulb temperature, Lewis relation, Gas liquid contact, Dehumidification, Adiabatic Humidification. Equipments: Natural Circulation, Natural draft, Mechanical draft, Spray tower, Spray chamber, Spray pond, Humidity Measurement: Direct chemical method, Hygrometer method, Sling psychrometer, Dew point method, Mirror method BPUT Rourkela Page 1

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Mass Transfer-I MODULE-I 1.1 INTRODUCTION TO MASS TRANSFER OPERATION Mass transfer is a transport of components under a chemical potential gradient. The component moves to the direction of reducing concentration gradient. The transport occurs from a region of higher concentration to lower concentration. Equilibrium is reached when the gradient is zero. The transport or migration of one constituent from a region of higher concentration to that of a lower concentration is known as mass transfer. Mass transfer operations depend on molecules diffusing from one distinct phase to another and are based upon differences in the physicochemical properties of the molecules, such as vapour pressure or solubility. For interphase mass transfer, there is a concentration gradient between bulk and interface, however under steady state, at interface equilibrium is assumed. Mass transfer operation plays an important role in many industrial processes. A group of operations for separating the components of mixtures is based on the transfer of material from one homogeneous phase to another. These methods is covered by the term mass transfer operations which include techniques like gas absorption and stripping, liquid-liquid extraction, leaching, distillation, humidification, drying, crystallization and number of other separation techniques. 1.1.1 Absorption and stripping- Absorption refers to an operation in which the transfer of material is from a gas phase to a liquid phase. A gas is absorbed by means of liquid in which the solute gas is more or less soluble from its mixture with an inert gas as well as more or less insoluble gas. The liquid is essentially immiscible in the gas phase. The stripping is the separation of gas solute from the liquid phase. The separation of ammonia from an air-ammonia mixture by means of water is a typical example of absorption. The solute is then recovered from the solution by distillation. Depending upon situation, both the fluids (absorbent and absorbing fluid) are reprocessed and/or reused for the operation. 1.1.2 Adsorption and desorption –It exploits the ability of transfer of mass from either a gas or a liquid to the surface of a solid. The adsorption is not a true interphase mass transfer operation because the fluid adheres to the solid surface instead of dissolving in the solid. A desorption involves the transfer of mass from the solid surface (adsorbents) to the gas or liquid medium (adsorbates). A few operations of practical applications are (a) elimination of toxic gases and deodorization of air, (b) recovery of solvents, (c) removal of ions from solution, as in demineralization of water, (d) fractionation by selective adsorption of gases, BPUT Rourkela Page 3

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Mass Transfer-I vapours from gases, vapors from vapors and liquids from liquids and many other applications. 1.1.3 Extraction- It refers to a separation of the constituents of a liquid solution by contact with another insoluble liquid. The liquid which is added to the solution to bring about the extraction is known as the solvent. The solution which is to be extracted is called the feed. The solvent-richen product of the operation is called the extract and the residual liquid from which the solute is separated is called the raffinate. The separation of aromatics from kerosene based fuel oils, the production of fuels in the nuclear industry and the separation of penicillin from fermentation mixtures are examples of techniques of extraction. 1.1.4 Leaching-It is a treatment of a finely divided solid with a liquid. Some examples of leaching operations are oilseed extraction, extraction of sugar beets with hot water and extraction of medicinal compounds from plant roots, leaves and stems. 1.1.5 Distillation-It is an operation whereby a liquid mixture of miscible and volatile substances is separated into individual components or into group of components by partial vaporization. The separation of a mixture of methanol and water into its components, and separation of petroleum crude into gasoline, kerosene, fuel oil and lubricating stock are examples of distillation process. 1.1.6 Humidification and dehumidification- In humidification, the enrichment of vapour content in a gas stream takes place by passing the gas over a liquid. The transfer of water from the liquid phase to the gas phase of a mixture of air and water vapour is a widespread application of humidification. Dehumidification involves the transfer of water vapour from the gas phase to the liquid phase. Removal of water vapour from air by condensation of a cold surface and condensation of carban tetrachloride out of a stream of nitrogen are examples of dehumidification. 1.1.7 Drying and Evaporation- Drying refers to removal of relatively small amount of water or other liquid from a solid material whereas evaporation refers to the removal of relatively large amount of water from solutions. In evaporation the water is removed as vapour at its boiling point. Drying involves the removal of water at temperature below the boiling point by circulating air or some other carrier gas over the material. BPUT Rourkela Page 4

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Mass Transfer-I 1.2 CONCENTRATIONS AND FLUX 1.2.1 Concentrations The concentration of particular species is expressed in variety of ways. In mass transfer operation, the concentration gradient is the driving force when other driving forces (temperature, pressure gradients, etc.) are kept constant. The actual driving force for mass transfer to occur is to create gradient of chemical potential (between two points) which is a function of all external forces. The concentration gradients are generally expressed in terms of mass concentration of component, molar concentration of component and mass or mole fraction of species. BPUT Rourkela Page 5

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