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Note for ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND EXPERT SYSTEM - AIES by Umesh Kumar

  • ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND EXPERT SYSTEM - AIES
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  • Atal Bihari Vajpayee Vishwavidyalaya, Bilaspur (C.G.) - ABVV
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LECTURE NOTES ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND EXPERT SYSTEM MSC (CS) II YEAR III SEMETER (PAPER-II) Mr. UMESH KUMAR, MCA (GGU) DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BILASPUR VISHWAVIDYALAY, BILASPUR NEAR GANDHI CHOWK, CHHATTISAGARH 495009 By Mr. UMESH KUMAR, MCA (ggu) Page | 1

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BILASPUR VISHWAVIDYALAYA, BILASPUR (CHHATTISGARH) www.bilaspuruniversity.ac.in SEMESTER-III PAPER-II ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND EXPERT SYSTEM UNIT -I Introduction Overview of Artificial Intelligence (AI), Foundations of A.I., History of AI, Areas and state of the art in A.I. ,Knowledge: Introduction ,Knowledge Based system ,Knowledge representation techniques. UNIT II A.I. Programming Languages Introduction to LISP, Basic list manipulation functions, Input/output and local variables, Lists and Arrays, simple program in LISP, Introduction to PROLOG. UNIT III Problems And Heuristic Search Techniques Problem solving as state space search, production system, control strategies and problem characteristics; Search techniques: Breadth First , Depth-first search, Hill-climbing, Heuristics search, Best-First search. UNIT IV Knowledge Representation Approaches and Issues ,Frame, Conceptual dependency , Semantic Net ,Scripts etc. ,Propositional Logic , First order Propositional Logic (FOPL), Conversion to clausal form, Inference rules, Resolution principal. UNIT V Expert System Introduction, Application, Existing Expert systems. Components of typical expert system, Rule based system architecture, By Mr. UMESH KUMAR, MCA (ggu) Page | 2

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ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND EXPERT SYSTEM UNIT -I Introduction Artificial Intelligence   Artificial+ intelligence = non natural = ability to understand learn & think. The science and engineering of making intelligent machine, especially intelligent computer program.  Artificial intelligence is a way of making a computer – controlled robot. Or software thinks intelligently.  Artificial intelligence is a special branch of computer science or set of techniques and approaches to solve those problems that normally requires human intelligence.  Artificial intelligence is the art of creating machines that perform functions that require intelligence when perform functions that require intelligence when performed by people.  In the similar manner the intelligent humans think.  It is the study of how to make computers do things which, at the moment, people do better.  Artificial intelligence is the study and design of intelligent agent, where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its change of success.  It leads four important categories. The term AI is defined by each author in own way which falls into 4 categories.  The system that think like human  System that act like humans  System that think rationally  System that act rationally Application of AI Detail of following applications, there are some special application of AI  Finance  Medical  Industries  Telecom  Telephone maintained  Transport  Entertainment  Pattern recognition  Robotics  Data mining  Natural language processing  Speech recognition  Game playing  Air Travel Speech Processing  Expert system  Computer vision Some application are defined  Game playing – AI plays critical role in strategies game such as chess, poker, tic-tac toe etc. where machine an think of large number of possible position based on heuristic knowledge By Mr. UMESH KUMAR, MCA (ggu) Page | 3

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   Natural language processing – it is possible is interact with the computer that understands nature language spoken by human Expert system – there are some applications which integrated machine, software and special information to impart reasoning and advising. They provide explanation and advice to the users. Speech recognition – some intelligent system are capable of hearing and comprehending the language in terms of sentence and their meaning which a human talk to it. History of AI  Artificial Intelligence is not a new word and not a new technology for researchers.  This technology is much older than you would imagine.  Even there are the myths of Mechanical men in Ancient Greek and Egyptian Myths. Following are some milestones in the history of AI which defines the journey from the AI generation to till date development. Maturation of Artificial Intelligence (1943-1952) o Year 1943: The first work which is now recognized as AI was done by Warren McCulloch and Walter pits in 1943. They proposed a model of artificial neurons. o Year 1949: Donald Hebb demonstrated an updating rule for modifying the connection strength between neurons. His rule is now called Hebbian learning. o Year 1950: The Alan Turing who was an English mathematician and pioneered Machine learning in 1950. Alan Turing publishes "Computing Machinery and Intelligence" in which he proposed a test. The test can check the machine's ability to exhibit intelligent behavior equivalent to human intelligence, called a Turing test. The birth of Artificial Intelligence (1952-1956) o Year 1955: An Allen Newell and Herbert A. Simon created the "first artificial intelligence program"Which was named as "Logic Theorist". This program had proved 38 of 52 Mathematics theorems, and find new and more elegant proofs for some theorems. o Year 1956: The word "Artificial Intelligence" first adopted by American Computer scientist John McCarthy at the Dartmouth Conference. For the first time, AI coined as an academic field. At that time high-level computer languages such as FORTRAN, LISP, or COBOL By Mr. UMESH KUMAR, MCA (ggu) Page | 4

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