Stay dedicated because great things takes time.
--Your friends at LectureNotes


  • Artificial Intelligence and Expert System - AIES
  • Note
  • Atal Bihari Vajpayee Vishwavidyalaya, Bilaspur (C.G.) - ABVV
  • 5 Topics
  • 31 Offline Downloads
  • Uploaded 7 months ago
Umesh Kumar
Umesh Kumar
0 User(s)
Download PDFOrder Printed Copy

Share it with your friends

Leave your Comments

Text from page-2

BILASPUR VISHWAVIDYALAYA, BILASPUR (CHHATTISGARH) www.bilaspuruniversity.ac.in SEMESTER-III PAPER-II ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND EXPERT SYSTEM UNIT -I Introduction Overview of Artificial Intelligence (AI), Foundations of A.I., History of AI, Areas and state of the art in A.I. ,Knowledge: Introduction ,Knowledge Based system ,Knowledge representation techniques. UNIT II A.I. Programming Languages Introduction to LISP, Basic list manipulation functions, Input/output and local variables, Lists and Arrays, simple program in LISP, Introduction to PROLOG. UNIT III Problems And Heuristic Search Techniques Problem solving as state space search, production system, control strategies and problem characteristics; Search techniques: Breadth First , Depth-first search, Hill-climbing, Heuristics search, Best-First search. UNIT IV Knowledge Representation Approaches and Issues ,Frame, Conceptual dependency , Semantic Net ,Scripts etc. ,Propositional Logic , First order Propositional Logic (FOPL), Conversion to clausal form, Inference rules, Resolution principal. UNIT V Expert System Introduction, Application, Existing Expert systems. Components of typical expert system, Rule based system architecture, By Mr. UMESH KUMAR, MCA (ggu) Page | 2

Text from page-3

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND EXPERT SYSTEM UNIT -I Introduction Artificial Intelligence   Artificial+ intelligence = non natural = ability to understand learn & think. The science and engineering of making intelligent machine, especially intelligent computer program.  Artificial intelligence is a way of making a computer – controlled robot. Or software thinks intelligently.  Artificial intelligence is a special branch of computer science or set of techniques and approaches to solve those problems that normally requires human intelligence.  Artificial intelligence is the art of creating machines that perform functions that require intelligence when perform functions that require intelligence when performed by people.  In the similar manner the intelligent humans think.  It is the study of how to make computers do things which, at the moment, people do better.  Artificial intelligence is the study and design of intelligent agent, where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its change of success.  It leads four important categories. The term AI is defined by each author in own way which falls into 4 categories.  The system that think like human  System that act like humans  System that think rationally  System that act rationally Application of AI Detail of following applications, there are some special application of AI  Finance  Medical  Industries  Telecom  Telephone maintained  Transport  Entertainment  Pattern recognition  Robotics  Data mining  Natural language processing  Speech recognition  Game playing  Air Travel Speech Processing  Expert system  Computer vision Some application are defined  Game playing – AI plays critical role in strategies game such as chess, poker, tic-tac toe etc. where machine an think of large number of possible position based on heuristic knowledge By Mr. UMESH KUMAR, MCA (ggu) Page | 3

Text from page-4

   Natural language processing – it is possible is interact with the computer that understands nature language spoken by human Expert system – there are some applications which integrated machine, software and special information to impart reasoning and advising. They provide explanation and advice to the users. Speech recognition – some intelligent system are capable of hearing and comprehending the language in terms of sentence and their meaning which a human talk to it. History of AI  Artificial Intelligence is not a new word and not a new technology for researchers.  This technology is much older than you would imagine.  Even there are the myths of Mechanical men in Ancient Greek and Egyptian Myths. Following are some milestones in the history of AI which defines the journey from the AI generation to till date development. Maturation of Artificial Intelligence (1943-1952) o Year 1943: The first work which is now recognized as AI was done by Warren McCulloch and Walter pits in 1943. They proposed a model of artificial neurons. o Year 1949: Donald Hebb demonstrated an updating rule for modifying the connection strength between neurons. His rule is now called Hebbian learning. o Year 1950: The Alan Turing who was an English mathematician and pioneered Machine learning in 1950. Alan Turing publishes "Computing Machinery and Intelligence" in which he proposed a test. The test can check the machine's ability to exhibit intelligent behavior equivalent to human intelligence, called a Turing test. The birth of Artificial Intelligence (1952-1956) o Year 1955: An Allen Newell and Herbert A. Simon created the "first artificial intelligence program"Which was named as "Logic Theorist". This program had proved 38 of 52 Mathematics theorems, and find new and more elegant proofs for some theorems. o Year 1956: The word "Artificial Intelligence" first adopted by American Computer scientist John McCarthy at the Dartmouth Conference. For the first time, AI coined as an academic field. At that time high-level computer languages such as FORTRAN, LISP, or COBOL By Mr. UMESH KUMAR, MCA (ggu) Page | 4

Text from page-5

were invented. And the enthusiasm for AI was very high Early enthusiasm (1956-1974) o Year 1966: The researchers emphasized developing mathematical problems. Joseph Weizenbaum created the named as ELIZA. o Year 1972: The first intelligent humanoid robot was built WABOT-1. at that time. The golden yearsalgorithms which can solve first chatbot in 1966, which was in Japan which was named as The first AI winter (1974-1980) o The duration between years 1974 to 1980 was the first AI winter duration. AI winter refers to the time period where computer scientist dealt with a severe shortage of funding from government for AI researches. o During AI winters, an interest of publicity on artificial intelligence was decreased. A boom of AI (1980-1987) o Year 1980: After AI winter duration, AI came back with "Expert System". Expert systems were programmed that emulate the decision-making ability of a human expert. o In the Year 1980, the first national conference of the American Association of Artificial Intelligence was held at Stanford University. The second AI winter (1987-1993) o The duration between the years 1987 to 1993 was the second AI Winter duration. Again Investors and government stopped in funding for AI research as due to high cost but not efficient result. The expert system such as XCON was very cost effective. The emergence of intelligent agents (1993-2011) o Year 1997: In the year 1997, IBM Deep Blue beats world chess champion, Gary Kasparov, and became the first computer to beat a world chess champion. o Year 2002: for the first time, AI entered the home in the form of Roomba, a vacuum cleaner. o Year 2006: AI came in the Business world till the year 2006. Companies like Facebook, Twitter, and Netflix also started using AI. Deep learning, big data and artificial general intelligence (2011-present) o Year 2011: In the year 2011, IBM's Watson won jeopardy, a quiz show, where it had to solve the complex questions as well as riddles. Watson had proved that it could understand natural language and can solve tricky questions quickly. o Year 2012: Google has launched an Android app feature "Google now", which was able to provide information to the user as a prediction. o Year 2014: In the year 2014, Chatbot "Eugene Goostman" won a competition in the infamous "Turing test." o Year 2018: The "Project Debater" from IBM debated on complex topics with two master debaters and also performed extremely well. Google has demonstrated an AI program "Duplex" which was a virtual assistant and which had taken hairdresser appointment on call, and lady on other side didn't notice that she was talking with the machine. Now AI has developed to a remarkable level. The concept of Deep learning, big data, and data science are now trending like a boom. Nowadays companies like Google, Facebook, IBM, and Amazon are working with AI and creating amazing devices. The future of Artificial Intelligence is inspiring and will come with high intelligence. By Mr. UMESH KUMAR, MCA (ggu) Page | 5

Lecture Notes