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Note for Embedded System - ES by Sudhanshu Maurya

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1 Syllabus S.Y.B.Sc (Information Technology) Sem - IV, Paper - V Embedded Systems Unit - I Introduction : Embedded Systems and general purpose computer systems, history, classifications, applications and purpose of embedded systems. Core of Embedded Systems : Microprocessors and microcontrollers, RISC and CISC controllers, Big endian and Little endian processors, Application specific ICs, Programmable logic devices, COTS, sensors and actuators, communication interface, embedded firmware, other system components, PCB and passive components. Unit - II Characteristics and quality attributes of embedded systems : Characteristics, Operational and nonoperational quality attributes, application specific embedded system - washing machine, domain specific automotive. Unit - III Programming Embedded Systems : Structure of embedded program, infinite loop, compiling, linking and locating, downloading and debugging. Unit - IV Embedded hardware : Memory map, i/o map, interrupt map, processor family, external peripherals, memory RAM, ROM, types of RAM and ROM, memory testing, CRC, Flash memory. Unit - V Peripherals : Control and Status Registers, Device Driver, Timer Driver-Watchdog Timers, Embedded Operating System, Real-Time Characteristics, Selection Process. Unit - VI Design and Development : Embedded System development environment - IDE, Types of file generated on cross compilation, disassembler / decompiler, simulator, emulator and debugging, embedded product development life-cycle, trends in embedded industry. Books : Programming Embedded Systems in C and C++, First Edition January, Michael Barr, O’ Reilly Introduction to embedded systems, Shibu K V Tata McGraw-Hill.

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2 References : Embedded Systems, Rajkamal, TataMcGraw-Hill Term Work : Assignments : Should contain at least 6 assignments (one per unit) covering the Syllabus. Tutorial : At least three tutorials based on above syllabus must be conducted. Practical List : 1) Configure timer control registers of 8051 and develop a program to generate given time delay. 2) Port I / O : Use one of the four ports of 8051 for O / P interfaced to eight LED’s. Simulate binary counter (8 bit) on LED’s. 3) Serial I / O : Configure 8051 serial port for asynchronous serial communication with serial port of PC exchange text messages to PC and display on PC screen. Signify end of message by carriage return. 4) Interface 8051 with D/A converter and generate square wave of given frequency on oscilloscope. 5) Interface 8051 with D/A converter and generate triangular wave of given frequency on oscilloscope. 6) Using D/A converter generate sine wave on oscilloscope with the help of lookup table stored in data area of 8051. 7) Interface Stepper motor with 8051 and write a program to move the motor through a given angle in clock wise or counter clock wise direction. 8) Generate traffic signal. 9) Temperature controller. 10) Elevator control.      

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3 1 EMBEDDED SYSTEM : AN INTRODUCTION Unit Structure 1.0 Objectives 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Definition of Embedded System 1.3 History of Embedded System 1.4 Embedded System & General purpose computer 1.5 Classification of Embedded System 1.6 Application of Embedded System 1.7 Purpose of Embedded System 1.8 Review Questions 1.9 References & Further Reading 1.0     OBJECTIVES To understand what is an Embedded System and then define it Look at embedded systems from a historical point of view Classify embedded systems Look at certain applications & purposes of embedded systems 1.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter introduces the reader to the world of embedded systems. Everything that we look around us today is electronic. The days are gone where almost everything was manual. Now even the food that we eat is cooked with the assistance of a microchip (oven) and the ease at which we wash our clothes is due to the washing machine. This world of electronic items is made up of embedded system. In this chapter we will understand the basics of embedded system right from its definition. 1.2 DEFINITION OF AN EMBEDDED SYSTEM • An embedded system is a combination of 3 things: a. Hardware b. Software c. Mechanical Components And it is supposed to do one specific task only.

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4 • Example 1: Washing Machine A washing machine from an embedded systems point of view has: a. Hardware: Buttons, Display & buzzer, electronic circuitry. b. Software: It has a chip on the circuit that holds the software which drives controls & monitors the various operations possible. c. Mechanical Components: the internals of a washing machine which actually wash the clothes control the input and output of water, the chassis itself. • Example 2: Air Conditioner An Air Conditioner from an embedded systems point of view has: a. Hardware: Remote, Display & buzzer, Infrared Sensors, electronic circuitry. b. Software: It has a chip on the circuit that holds the software which drives controls & monitors the various operations possible. The software monitors the external temperature through the sensors and then releases the coolant or suppresses it. c. Mechanical Components: the internals of an air conditioner the motor, the chassis, the outlet, etc • An embedded system is designed to do a specific job only. Example: a washing machine can only wash clothes, an air conditioner can control the temperature in the room in which it is placed. • The hardware & mechanical components will consist all the physically visible things that are used for input, output, etc. • An embedded system will always have a chip (either microprocessor or microcontroller) that has the code or software which drives the system. 1.3 HISTORY OF EMBEDDED SYSTEM • • • • The first recognised embedded system is the Apollo Guidance Computer(AGC) developed by MIT lab. AGC was designed on 4K words of ROM & 256 words of RAM. The clock frequency of first microchip used in AGC was 1.024 MHz. The computing unit of AGC consists of 11 instructions and 16 bit word logic.

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