Module 1 Human Behaviour: Biological characteristics, age, gender, tenure. Ability, intellectual and physical abilities. Learning, theories of learning. Values, importance of values, types. Attitudes, types, attitudes and consistency, workforce diversity. Personality and emotions, personality determinants and traits, emotion dimensions. Perception, factors influencing perception, making judgement about others, link between perception and individual decision making. Organizational behavior Organizational behavior is not a designated function or area. Rather, it is a perspective or set of tools that all managers can use to carry out their jobs more effectively. The ability to use the tools of organizational behavior to understand behavior in organizations is one reason for studying this topic. A second reason is to learn how to apply these concepts, theories, and techniques to improve behavior in organizations so that individuals, groups, and organizations can achieve their goals. Managers are challenged to find new ways to motivate and coordinate employees to ensure that their goals are aligned with organizational goals. A manager supervises one or more subordinates. Managers include CEOs, who head top management teams of high-ranking executives responsible for planning strategy to achieve toplevel managers might be responsible for thousands of workers. But managers are also found throughout the lower levels of organizations and often are in charge of just a few subordinates. All managers face the challenge of helping the organization achieve its goals. Knowledge of organizational behavior increases effectiveness by providing managers with a set of tools. Managers can raise a worker’s self-esteem and increase worker productivity by changing the reward system or the job design. Biographical Characteristics 1. Finding and analyzing the variables that have an impact on employee productivity, absence, turnover, and satisfaction is often complicated. 2. Many of the concepts—motivation, or power, politics or organizational culture—are hard to assess. 3. Other factors are more easily definable and readily available—data that can be obtained from an employee’s personnel file and would include characteristics such as: Age • Gender • Marital status • Length of service, etc. A. Age 1. The relationship between age and job performance is increasing in importance. • First, there is a widespread belief that job performance declines with increasing age. • Second, the workforce is aging; workers over 55 are the fastest growing sector of the workforce. 2. Employers’ perceptions are mixed. • They see a number of positive qualities that older workers bring to their jobs, specifically experience, judgment, a strong work ethic, and commitment to quality. • Older workers are also perceived as lacking flexibility and as being resistant to new technology.
• Some believe that the older you get, the less likely you are to quit your job. That conclusion is based on studies of the age-turnover relationship. 3. It is tempting to assume that age is also inversely related to absenteeism. • Most studies do show an inverse relationship, but close examination finds that the age absence relationship is partially a function of whether the absence is avoidable or unavoidable. • In general, older employees have lower rates of avoidable absence. However, they have higher rates of unavoidable absence, probably due to their poorer health associated with aging and longer recovery periods when injured. 4. There is a widespread belief that productivity declines with age and that individual skills decay over time. • Reviews of the research find that age and job performance are unrelated. • This seems to be true for almost all types of jobs, professional and nonprofessional. 5. The relationship between age and job satisfaction is mixed. • Most studies indicate a positive association between age and satisfaction, at least up to age 60. • Other studies, however, have found a U-shaped relationship. When professional and nonprofessional employees are separated, satisfaction tends to continually increase among professionals as they age, whereas it falls among nonprofessionals during middle age and then rises again in the later years. B. Gender 1. There are few, if any, important differences between men and women that will affect their job performance, including the areas of: • Problem-solving • Analytical skills • Competitive drive • Motivation • Sociability • Learning ability 2. Women are more willing to conform to authority, and men are more aggressive and more likely than women to have expectations of success, but those differences are minor. 3. There is no evidence indicating that an employee’s gender affects job satisfaction. 4. There is a difference between men and women in terms of preference for work schedules. • Mothers of preschool children are more likely to prefer part-time work, flexible work schedules, and telecommuting in order to accommodate their family responsibilities. 5. Absence and turnover rates • Women’s quit rates are similar to men’s. • The research on absence consistently indicates that women have higher rates of absenteeism. • The logical explanation: cultural expectation that has historically placed home and family responsibilities on the woman. C. Tenure 1. This is described as seniority. The issue of the impact of job seniority on job performance has been subject to misconceptions and speculations. 2. Extensive reviews of the seniority-productivity relationship have been conducted: • There is a positive relationship between tenure and job productivity. • There is a negative relationship between tenure to absence. • Tenure is also a potential variable in explaining turnover.
• Tenure has consistently been found to be negatively related to turnover and has been suggested as one of the single best predictors of turnover. • The evidence indicates that tenure and satisfaction are positively related. Ability Ability refers to an individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job. An individual's overall abilities are essentially made up of the following factors: 1. Intellectual Abilities, and 2. Physical Abilities. Different Types of Abilities 1. Intellectual Abilities Intellectual Abilities are those that are needed to perform mental activities. Mental activities can be measured by intelligent quotient (IQ) tests that are designed to ascertain one's general mental abilities. Some familiar examples of such tests in are Common Admission Tests (CAT), Management programs admission tests (GMAT), law (LSAT), and medical (MCAT), etc. Usually these tests try to measure and evaluate one’s mental abilities on various academic areas pertaining to the success in the relevant courses, such as mathematics, English, General knowledge etc. It is believed that there are a few different dimensions of mental abilities. Some of the most frequently cited dimensions of intellectual capacities are: 1. Number Aptitude (Mathematics), 5. Deductive Reasoning, 2. Verbal Comprehension (English), 6. Spatial Visualization, 3. Perceptual Speed, 7. Memory 4. Reasoning, Generally speaking, the more information processing is required in a job, the more general intelligence and verbal abilities will be necessary to perform the job successfully. Of course, a high IQ is not a prerequisite for all. In Fact, for many jobs in which employee behavior is highly
routine and there are little or no opportunities to exercise discretion, a high IQ may be unrelated to performance. On the other hand, a careful review of the evidence demonstrates that tests that assess verbal, numerical, spatial, and perceptual ability are valid predictors of job proficiency at all levels of jobs. Therefore, tests measure specific dimensions of intelligence have been found to be strong predictors of future job performance. 2. Physical Abilities To the same degree that intellectual abilities play a larger role in complex jobs with demanding information-processing requirements, specific physical abilities gain importance for successfully doing less skilled and more standardized jobs. For example, jobs in which success demands stamina, manual dexterity, leg strength, or similar talents require management to identify an employee's physical capabilities. Research on the requirements needed in hundreds of jobs has identified nine basic abilities involved in the performance of physical tasks. Individuals differ in the extent to which they have each of these abilities. Surprisingly, there is also little relationship between them: A high score on one is no assurance of a high score on others. High employee performance is likely to be achieved when management has ascertained the extent to which a job requires each of the nine abilities and then ensures that, employees in that job have those abilities. The specific intellectual or physical abilities required for adequate job performance depend on the ability requirements of the job. So, for example, airline pilots need strong spatialvisualization abilities. Beach lifeguards need both strong spatial-visualization abilities and body coordination Senior Managers need verbal abilities; high rise construction workers need balance; and Journalists with weak reasoning abilities would likely have difficulty meeting minimum job-performance standards.