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Note for Computer Organisation and Architecture - COA By JAYAPRASAD KM

  • Computer Organisation and Architecture - COA
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MODULE 1 COMPUTER ORGANIZATION AND ARCHITECTURE 18EC35 CONTENTS SYLLABUS, TEXT BOOK AND WEBSITE REFERENCE 2 1 BASIC STRUCTURE OF COMPUTERS 1.1 Computer Types 1.2 Functional Units 1.2.1 Input unit 1.2.2 Memory Unit 1.2.3 Arithmetic and Logic Unit 1.2.4 Output Unit 1.2.5 Control Unit 1.3 Basic Operational Concepts 1.4 Bus Structures 1.5 Software 1.6 Performance 3 1.6.1 1.6.2 Processor Clock Basic Performance Equation 2 MACHINE INSTRUCTIONS AND PROGRAMS 2.1 Numbers, Arithmetic Operations and Characters 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.1.5 2.2 2.3 Number Representation Addition of Positive Numbers Addition and Subtraction of Signed Numbers Overflow in Integer Arithmetic Characters IEEE standard for Floating point Numbers Memory Location and Addresses 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.4 2.5 Byte Addressability Big-Endian and Little-Endian Assignments Word Alignment Accessing Numbers and Characters, and Character Strings Memory Operations Instructions and Instruction Sequencing 2.5.1 2.5.2 2.5.3 2.5.4 2.5.5 2.5.6 Register Transfer Notation Assembly-Language Notation Basic Instruction Types Instruction Execution and Straight-line Sequencing Branching Condition Codes 3 QUESTION BANK 4 EXERCISE PROBLEMS AND SOLUTION 5 ASCII CODE TABLE Prepared by: Mr. Jayaprasad K M, Assistant Professor 3 4 5 5 7 7 7 8 12 13 16 17 18 20 20 20 22 23 26 27 27 31 33 33 34 34 35 35 36 36 37 42 43 46 48 49 54 Page 1

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MODULE 1 COMPUTER ORGANIZATION AND ARCHITECTURE 18EC35 SYLLABUS Part 1: Basic Structure of Computers: Computer Types, Functional Units, Basic Operational Concepts, Bus Structures, Software, Performance- Processor Clock, Basic Performance Equation (up to 1.6.2 of Chap 1 of Text). Part2: Machine Instructions and Programs: Numbers, Arithmetic Operations and Characters, IEEE standard for Floating point Numbers, Memory Location and Addresses, Memory Operations, Instructions and Instruction Sequencing, (up to 2.4.6 of Chap 2 and 6.7.1 of Chap 6 of Text). RBT Level: L1, L2 TEXT, REFERENCE & ADDITIONAL REFERENCE BOOKS: BOOK TITLE / AUTHORS / PUBLICATION T1. Carl Hamacher, Zvonko Vranesic, Safwat Zaky: Computer Organization, 5th Edition, Tata McGraw Hill, 2002. David A. Patterson, John L. Hennessy: Computer Organization and Design – The Hardware / Software Interface ARM Edition, 4th Edition, Elsevier, 2009. R2. William Stallings: Computer Organization & Architecture, 7th Edition, PHI, 2006. R1. R3. Vincent P. Heuring & Harry F. Jordan: Computer Systems Design and Architecture, 2nd Edition, Pearson Education, 2004. WEB REFERENCE BOOKS: WEB ADDRESS W1. C Programming and Assembly Language , NPTEL course: https://swayam.gov.in/nd1_noc19_cs44/previewComputer Architecture and Organization NPTEL by Mayank Shrivastava- 65 Videos W2. W3 Link: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLWPirh4EWFpF0FVeBgL75d1RlASn4sGoz Computer Organization-by Tutorials Point (India) Pvt. Ltd- 107 videos https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLWPirh4EWFpF0FVeBgL75d1RlASn4sGoz Prepared by: Mr. Jayaprasad K M, Assistant Professor Page 2

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MODULE 1 COMPUTER ORGANIZATION AND ARCHITECTURE 18EC35 PART 1 BASIC STRUCTURE OF COMPUTERS In this part you will be introduced to:  The different types of computers  The basic structure of a computer and its operation  Basic performance issues in computer systems 1.1 COMPUTER TYPES Digital Computer or Computer: It’s a fast electronic calculating machine that accepts digitized input information, processes it according to a list of internally stored instructions, and produces the resulting information. The list of instructions is called a computer program, and the internal storage is called computer memory Many types of computer exist that differ widely in size, cost, computational power and intended use a). Personal computer:  Achieved widespread use in homes, educational institutions, and business and engineering office settings, primarily for dedicated individual use. They support a variety of applications such as general computation, document preparation, computer-aided design, audiovisual entertainment, interpersonal communication, and Internet browsing.  Desktop computers serve general needs and fit within a typical personal workspace. It has processing and storage units, visual display, audio output units and a keyboard.  Portable and Notebook computers provide the basic features of a personal computer in a smaller lightweight package. They can operate on batteries to provide mobility. b).Workstation computers It offers higher computational capacity and more powerful graphical display capabilities for engineering, interactive design work and scientific work. c). Servers and Enterprise systems These are large computers that are meant to be shared by a potentially large number of users who access them from some form of personal computer over a public or private network. Prepared by: Mr. Jayaprasad K M, Assistant Professor Page 3

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MODULE 1 COMPUTER ORGANIZATION AND ARCHITECTURE 18EC35 Such computers may host large databases and provide information processing for a government agency or a commercial organization. d). Super computers: Normally offer the highest performance. They are the most expensive and physically the largest category of computers. Supercomputers are used for the highly demanding computations needed in weather forecasting, engineering design and simulation, and scientific work. 1.2 FUNCTIONAL UNITS A computer consists of five functionally independent main parts: input, memory, arithmetic and logic, output, and control units, as shown in Figure 1.1.  The input unit accepts coded information from human operators using devices such as keyboards or from other computers over digital communication lines.  The information received is stored in the computer’s memory, either for later use or to be processed immediately by the arithmetic and logic unit.  The processing steps are specified by a program that is also stored in the memory.  Finally, the results are sent back to the outside world through the output unit.  All of these actions are coordinated by the control unit.  We refer to the arithmetic and logic circuits, in conjunction with the main control circuits, as the processor.  Input and output equipment is often collectively referred to as the input-output (I/O) unit. Figure 1.1 Basic functional units of a computer.  A program is a list of instructions which performs a task. Programs are stored in the memory.  The processor fetches the program instructions from the memory, one after another, and performs the desired operations.  The computer is controlled by the stored program, except for possible external interruption by an operator or by I/O devices connected to it. Prepared by: Mr. Jayaprasad K M, Assistant Professor Page 4

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