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ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LECTURE NOTES (Subject Code: BCS-404) for Bachelor of Technology in Computer Science and Engineering & Information Technology Department of Computer Science and Engineering & Information Technology Veer Surendra Sai University of Technology (Formerly UCE, Burla) Burla, Sambalpur, Odisha Lecture Note Prepared by: Prof. Pradipta Kumar Das Prof. D. Chandrasekhar Rao Prof. Kishore Kumar Sahu

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DISCLAIMER This document does not claim any originality and cannot be used as a substitute for prescribed textbooks. The information presented here is merely a collection by the committee members for their respective teaching assignments. Various sources as mentioned at the end of the document as well as freely available material from internet were consulted for preparing this document. The ownership of the information lies with the respective authors or institutions.

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BCS-404 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (3-1-0) Cr.-04 Module - I Formalized symbolic logic: Propositional logic-first order predicate logic, wff conversion to clausal form, inference rules, the resolution principle, Dealing with inconsistencies and uncertainties, fuzzy logic. Module - II Probabilistic Reasoning Structured knowledge, graphs, frames and related structures, Knowledge organization and manipulation. Module – III Matching Techniques, Knowledge organizations, Management. Module - IV Natural Language processing, Pattern recognition, expert systems. Text Book: 1. Artificial Intelligence, Dan W Patterson, Prentice Hall of India (1999) Chapter-4, 5,7,9,10,11,12,13,15. Reference Books: 1. Artificial Intelligence, Nils J.Nilsson, ELSEVIER. 2. E.Rich and K.Knight, Artificial Intelligence, - TMH

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Overview of Artificial Intelligence What is AI ?  Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a branch of Science which deals with helping machines find solutions to complex problems in a more human-like fashion.  This generally involves borrowing characteristics from human intelligence, and applying them as algorithms in a computer friendly way.  A more or less flexible or efficient approach can be taken depending on the requirements established, which influences how artificial the intelligent behavior appears  Artificial intelligence can be viewed from a variety of perspectives.  From the perspective of intelligence artificial intelligence is making machines "intelligent" -- acting as we would expect people to act. o The inability to distinguish computer responses from human responses is called the Turing test. o Intelligence requires knowledge o Expert problem solving - restricting domain to allow including significant relevant knowledge  From a business perspective AI is a set of very powerful tools, and methodologies for using those tools to solve business problems.  From a programming perspective, AI includes the study of symbolic programming, problem solving, and search. o Typically AI programs focus on symbols rather than numeric processing. o Problem solving - achieve goals. o Search - seldom access a solution directly. Search may include a variety of techniques. o AI programming languages include: – LISP, developed in the 1950s, is the early programming language strongly associated with AI. LISP is a functional programming language with procedural extensions. LISP (LISt Processor) was specifically designed for

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