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Note for Power Electronics - PE By Upesh Patel

  • Power Electronics - PE
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Digital Electronics We know there are two types of signals, one is analog or continuous signal and the second one is Digital or discrete signal. So the science or field of research in the area of engineering is termed as Analog and Digital Electronics respectively. Now coming to the area of Digital Electronics, it is essential to understand wide range of applications from industrial electronics to the fields of communication, from micro embedded systems to military equipment. The main and perhaps the most revolutionary advantage of digital electronics is the decrease in size and the improvement in technology. We have chosen to discuss various topics of Digital Electronics from the very fundamentals of this subject such as Number systems, logic circuits going deep into those topics, like discussing various types of number systems, which we should use and how, inter relation among those number systems to the somewhat tougher concepts of Digital Electronics like TTL, PMOS-NMOS logic, Flip Flops etc. to get an idea about the whole subject. All the topics of the related articles have been amply presented by diagrams, designs, tables and examples to make every topic understandable as much as possible. The topics are written in such a manner that if one go through them he will grasp the very basic idea at first attempt and further reading will enhance the technical knowledge. Now let us inform you what we have included in the topics of Digital Electronics, as we have already discussed we have started from the very basic topics of Digital Electronics like Number system. Then we have discussed the extension of number system like various types of number system, interrelation among different types of number systems making oneself absolutely comfortable with the fundamentals of Number system. Then we have enlightened the very important field of Digital Electronics i.e. Binary Arithmetic and Boolean algebra. And we have discussed about them in elaborated manner. From binary addition, binary subtraction, binary multiplication and binary division to the basics of Boolean algebra. After that we have written topics about various types of codes such as ASCII code, Gray Code, Hamming code which have made the input output format very easy. Then various types of logic gates (AND gate, OR gate, NOT gate, NAND gate, NOR gate, EX-OR gate) have been discussed in an elaborated manner with diagrams, explanations and truth tablesto make each one of them very easy to understand. These may be classified as the fundamentals of Digital Electronics without which the subject cannot be understood at all. So after discussing about them we have gone deep into the subject. Topics like TTL, Logic Families, various MOS gates, Flip Flops (J-K, D, T etc.) have been discussed. The sole purpose of introducing this subject in our Electrical Engineering website is because nowadays all the engineering streams are interrelated, and the knowledge of Digital Electronics is very much essential for an Electrical Engineer. If you‟d like to learn more about electronics, check out our basic electronics questions. Content: Analog Vs Digital Signal Analog and Digital are the different forms of signals. Signals are used to carry information from one device to another. Analog signal is a continuous wave that keeps on changing over a time period. Digital signal is discrete in nature. The fundamental difference between analog and digital signal is that analog signal is represented by the sine waves whereas, the digital signal is represented by square waves. Lets us learn some more differences between analog and digital signal with the help of comparison chart shown below.

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Comparison Chart BASIS FOR COMPARISON ANALOG SIGNAL DIGITAL SIGNAL Basic An analog signal is a continuous wave that changes over a time period. A digital signal is a discrete wave that carries information in binary form. Representation An analog signal is represented by a sine wave. A digital signal is represented by square waves. Description An analog signal is described by the amplitude, period or frequency, and phase. A digital signal is described by bit rate and bit intervals. Range Analog signal has no fixed range. Digital signal has a finite numbers i.e. 0 and 1. Distortion An analog signal is more prone to distortion. A digital signal is less prone to distortion. Transmit An analog signal transmit data in the form of a wave. A digital signal carries data in the binary form i.e. 0 nad 1. Example The human voice is the best example of an analog signal. Signals used for transmission in a computer are the digital signal. Definition of Analog Signal Analog signal is a kind of continuous wave form that changes over time. An anlaog signal is further classified into simple and composite signals. A simple analog signal is a sine wave that cannot be decomposed further. On the other hand, a composite analog signal can be further decomposed into multiple sine waves. An analog signal is described using amplitude, period or frequency and phase. Amplitude marks the maximum height of the signal. Frequency marks the rate at which signal is changing. Phase marks the position of the wave with respect to time zero. An analog signal is not immune to noise hence, it faces distortion and decrease the quality of transmission. The range of value in an analog signal is not fixed. Definition of Digital Signal Digital signals also carry information like analog signals but is somewhat is different from analog signals. Digital signal is non continuous, discrete time signal. Digital signal carries information or data in the binary form i.e. a digital signal represent information in the form of bits. Digital signal can be further decomposed into simple sine waves that are called harmonics. Each simple wave has different amplitude, frequency and phase. Digital signal is described with bit rate and bit interval. Bit interval describes the time require for sending a single bit. On the other hand, bit rate describes the frequency of bit interval.

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A digital signal is more immune to the noise; hence, it hardly faces any distortion. Digital signals are easier to transmit and are more reliable when compared to analog signals. Digital signal has a finite range of values. The digital signal consists 0s and 1s. Key Differences Between Analog and Digital Signal 1. An analog signal represents a continuous wave that keeps changing over a time period. On the other hand, a digital signal represents a noncontinuous wave that carries information in a binary format and has discrete values. 2. An analog signal is always represented by the continuous sine wave whereas, a digital signal is represented by square waves. 3. While talking of analog signal we describe the behaviour of the wave in respect of amplitude, period or frequency, and phase of the wave. On the other hand, while talking of discrete signals we describe the behaviour of the wave in respect of bit rate and bit interval. 4. The range of an anlaog signal is not fixed whereas the range of the digital signal is finite and which can be 0 or 1. 5. An analog signal is more prone to distortion in response to noise, but a digital signal has immunity in response to noise hence it rarely faces any distortion. 6. An analog signal transmits data in the form of wave whereas, a digital signal transmits the data in the binary form i.e. in the form of bits. 7. The best example of an analog signal is a human voice, and the best example of a digital signal is the transmission of data in a computer.

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