Lecture Notes on Renewable Energy Sources ) Page 1
Syllabus NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES (3-1-0) MODULE-I (10 HOURS) Energy Scenario: Classification of Energy Sources, Energy resources (Conventional and nonconventional), Energy needs of India, and energy consumption patterns. Worldwide Potentials of these sources. Energy efficiency and energy security. Energy and its environmental impacts, Distributed generation. Solar Energy: Solar thermal Systems: Types of collectors, Collection systems, efficiency calculations, applications. Photo voltaic (PV) technology: Present status, solar cells, cell technologies, characteristics of PV systems, equivalent circuit, array design , building integrated PV system, its components , sizing and economics. Peak power operation. Standalone and grid interactive systems. MODULE-II (10 HOURS) Wind Energy: Wind speed and power relation, power extracted from wind, wind distribution and wind speed predictions. Wind power systems: system components, Types of Turbine, Turbine rating. Choice of generators, turbine rating, electrical load matching, Variable speed operation, maximum power operation, control systems, system design features, stand alone and grid connected operation. Small Hydro Systems MODULE-III (10 HOURS) Energy storage and hybrid system configurations: Energy storage, Battery – types, equivalent circuit, performance characteristics, battery design, charging and charge regulators. Battery management. Flywheel-energy relations, components, benefits over battery. Fuel Cell energy storage systems. Ultra Capacitors. Bio-Mass and Bio-Fuels. MODULE-IV (10 HOURS) Grid Integration: Stand alone systems, Concept of Micro-Grid and its components, Hybrid systems – hybrid with diesel, with fuel cell, solar-wind, wind –hydro systems, mode controller, load sharing, system sizing. Hybrid system economics, Interface requirements, Stable operation, Transient-safety, Operating limits of voltage, frequency, stability margin, energy storage, and load scheduling. Effect on power quality, harmonic distortion, voltage transients and sags, voltage flickers, dynamic reactive power support. Systems stiffness.
ENERGY SCENARIO INTRODUCTION Any physical activity in this world, whether carried out by human beings or by nature, is cause due to flow of energy in one form or the other. The word ‘energy’ itself is derived from the Greek word ‘en-ergon’, which means ‘in-work’ or ‘work content’. The work output depends on the energy input. Energy is one of the major inputs for the economic development of any country. In the case of the developing countries, the energy sector assumes a critical importance in view of the everincreasing energy needs requiring huge investments to meet them. Energy can be classified into several types based on the following criteria: • Primary and Secondary energy • Commercial and Non commercial energy • Renewable and Non-Renewable energy • Conventional and Non-conventional energy 1.1 Primary and Secondary Energy Fig1.1. Major Primary and Secondary sources Primary energy sources are those that are either found or stored in nature. Common primary energy sources are coal, oil, natural gas, and biomass (such as wood). Other primary energy Page 4
sources available include nuclear energy from radioactive substances, thermal energy stored in earth's interior, and potential energy due to earth's gravity. The major primary and secondary energy sources are shown in Figure 1.1 Primary energy sources are costly converted in industrial utilities into secondary energy sources; for example coal, oil or gas converted into steam and electricity. Primary energy can also be used directly. Some energy sources have non energy uses, for example coal or natural gas can be used as a feedstock in fertilizer plants. 1.2 Commercial Energy and Non Commercial Energy Commercial Energy The energy sources that are available in the market for a definite price are known as commercial energy. By far the most important forms of commercial energy are electricity, coal and refined petroleum products. Commercial energy forms the basis of industrial, agricultural, transport and commercial development in the modern world. In the industrialized countries, commercialized fuels are predominant source not only for economic production, but also for many household tasks of general population. Examples: Electricity, lignite, coal, oil, natural gas etc. Non-Commercial Energy The energy sources that are not available in the commercial market for a price are classified as non-commercial energy. Non-commercial energy sources include fuels such as firewood, cattle dung and agricultural wastes, which are traditionally gathered, and not bought at a price used especially in rural households. These are also called traditional fuels. Non-commercial energy is often ignored in energy accounting. Example: Firewood, agro waste in rural areas; solar energy for water heating, electricity generation, for drying grain, fish and fruits; animal power for transport, threshing, lifting water for irrigation, crushing sugarcane; wind energy for lifting water and electricity generation.