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- Switching Theory and Logic Design - STLD
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SWITCHING THEORY AND LOGIC DESIGN LECTURE NOTES B.TECH (II YEAR – II SEM) (2018-19) Prepared by: Mr.K.SURESH, Assistant Professor Ms D Asha, Assistant Professor Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering MALLA REDDY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (Autonomous Institution – UGC, Govt. of India) Recognized under 2(f) and 12 (B) of UGC ACT 1956 (Affiliated to JNTUH, Hyderabad, Approved by AICTE - Accredited by NBA & NAAC – ‘A’ Grade - ISO 9001:2015 Certified) Maisammaguda, Dhulapally (Post Via. Kompally), Secunderabad – 500100, Telangana State, India

B.Tech (ECE) R-17 MALLA REDDY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY II Year B.Tech ECE-II Sem L 4 T/P/D 1/-/- C 4 (R17A0407) SWITCHING THEORY AND LOGIC DESIGN OBJECTIVES The main objectives of the course are: 1. To learn basic techniques for the design of digital circuits and fundamental concepts used in the design of digital systems. 2. To understand common forms of number representation in digital electronic circuits and to be able to convert between different representations. 3. To implement simple logical operations using combinational logic circuits 4. To design combinational logic circuits, sequential logic circuits. 5. To impart to student the concepts of sequential circuits, enabling them to analyze sequential systems in terms of state machines. UNIT -I: Number System and Gates: Number Systems, Base Conversion Methods, Complements of Numbers, Codes- Binary Codes, Binary Coded Decimal Code and its Properties, Excess-3 code, Unit Distance Code, Error Detecting and Correcting Codes, Hamming Code. Digital Logic Gates, Properties of XOR Gates, Universal Logic Gates. UNIT -II: Boolean Algebra and Minimization: Basic Theorems and Properties, Switching Functions, Canonical and Standard Forms, Multilevel NAND/NOR realizations. K- Map Method, up to Five variable K- Maps, Don’t Care Map Entries, Prime and Essential prime Implications, Quine Mc Cluskey Tabular Method UNIT -III: Combinational Circuits Design: Combinational Design, Half adder,Full adder,Half subtractor,Full subtractor,Parallel binary adder/subtracor,BCD adder, Comparator, decoder, Encoder, Multiplexers, DeMultiplexers, Code Converters. UNIT -IV: Sequential Machines Fundamentals: Introduction, Basic Architectural Distinctions between Combinational and Sequential circuits, classification of sequential circuits, The binary cell, The S-R-Latch Flip-Flop The DLatch Flip-Flop, The “Clocked T” Flip-Flop, The “ Clocked J-K” Flip-Flop, Design of a Clocked Flip-Flop, Conversion from one type of Flip-Flop to another, Timing and Triggering Consideration. UNIT -V: Sequential Circuit Design and Analysis: Malla Reddy College of Engineering and Technology (MRCET)

B.Tech (ECE) R-17 Introduction, State Diagram, Analysis of Synchronous Sequential Circuits, Approaches to the Design of Synchronous Sequential Finite State Machines, Design Aspects, State Reduction, Design Steps, Realization using Flip-Flops. Counters - Design of Asynchronous and Synchronous counters, Decade Counter,RegisterShift Register, Bidirectional Shift Register,universal shifteregister,shift registers using Ring Counter . TEXT BOOKS: 1. Digital Design- Morris Mano, PHI, 3rd Edition. 2. Switching Theory and Logic Design-A. Anand Kumar, PHI, 2nd Edition. 3. Switching and Finite Automata Theory- Zvi Kohavi & Niraj K. Jha, 3rd Edition, Cambridge. REFERENCE BOOKS: 1. Introduction to Switching Theory and Logic Design – Fredriac J. Hill, Gerald R. Peterson, 3rd Ed,John Wiley & Sons Inc. 2. Digital Fundamentals – A Systems Approach – Thomas L. Floyd, Pearson, 2013. 3. Switching Theory and Logic Design – Bhanu Bhaskara –Tata McGraw Hill Publication, 2012 4. Fundamentals of Logic Design- Charles H. Roth, Cengage LEanring, 5th, Edition, 2004. 5. Digital Logic Applications and Design- John M. Yarbrough, Thomson Publications, 2006. 6. Digital Logic and State Machine Design – Comer, 3rd, Oxford, 2013. OUTCOMES Upon completion of the course, student should possess the following skills: 1. Be able to manipulate numeric information in different forms 2. Be able to manipulate simple Boolean expressions using the theorems and postulates of Boolean algebra and to minimize combinational functions. 3. Be able to design and analyze small combinational circuits and to use standard combinational functions to build larger more complex circuits. Be able to design and analyze small sequential circuits and to use standard sequential functions to build larger more complex circuits Malla Reddy College of Engineering and Technology (MRCET)

UNIT - 1 NUMBER SYSTEMS & CODES Introduction about digital system Philosophy of number systems Complement representation of negative numbers Binary arithmetic Binary codes Error detecting & error correcting codes Hamming codes INTRODUCTION ABOUT DIGITAL SYSTEM A Digital system is an interconnection of digital modules and it is a system that manipulates discrete elements of information that is represented internally in the binary form. Now a day’s digital systems are used in wide variety of industrial and consumer products such as automated industrial machinery, pocket calculators, microprocessors, digital computers, digital watches, TV games and signal processing and so on. Characteristics of Digital systems Digital systems manipulate discrete elements of information. Discrete elements are nothing but the digits such as 10 decimal digits or 26 letters of alphabets and so on. Digital systems use physical quantities called signals to represent discrete elements. In digital systems, the signals have two discrete values and are therefore said to be binary. A signal in digital system represents one binary digit called a bit. The bit has a value either 0 or 1. Analog systems vs Digital systems Analog system process information that varies continuously i.e; they process time varying signals that can take on any values across a continuous range of voltage, current or any physical parameter. Digital systems use digital circuits that can process digital signals which can take either 0 or 1 for binary system.

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