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Note for Computer Organisation and Architecture - COA By Riyaz Pasha

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COMPUTER ORGANIZATION AND ARCHITECTURE BY: RIYAZ MOHAMMED

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SYLLABUS UNIT – I Digital Computers: Introduction, Block diagram of Digital Computer, Definition of Computer Organization, Computer Design and Computer Architecture. Register Transfer Language and Micro operations: Register Transfer language, Register Transfer, Bus and memory transfers, Arithmetic Micro operations, logic micro operations, shift micro operations, Arithmetic logic shift unit. Basic Computer Organization and Design: Instruction codes, Computer Registers Computer instructions, Timing and Control, Instruction cycle, Memory Reference Instructions, Input – Output and Interrupt. UNIT – II Microprogrammed Control: Control memory, Address sequencing, micro program example, design of control unit. Central Processing Unit: General Register Organization, Instruction Formats, Addressing modes, Data Transfer and Manipulation, Program Control. UNIT – III Data Representation: Data types, Complements, Fixed Point Representation, Floating Point Representation. Computer Arithmetic: Addition and subtraction, multiplication Algorithms, Division Algorithms, Floating – point Arithmetic operations. Decimal Arithmetic unit, Decimal Arithmetic operations. UNIT – IV Input-Output Organization: Input-Output Interface, Asynchronous data transfer, Modes of Transfer, Priority Interrupt Direct memory Access. Memory Organization: Memory Hierarchy, Main Memory, Auxiliary memory, Associate Memory, Cache Memory. UNIT – V Reduced Instruction Set Computer: CISC Characteristics, RISC Characteristics. Pipeline and Vector Processing: Parallel Processing, Pipelining, Arithmetic Pipeline, Instruction Pipeline, RISC Pipeline, Vector Processing, Array Processor. Multi Processors: Characteristics of Multiprocessors, Interconnection Structures, Interprocessor arbitration, Interprocessor communication and synchronization, Cache Coherence. ******

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Computer Organization & Architecture Riyaz Mohammed UNIT – I Digital Computers: Introduction, Block diagram of Digital Computer, Definition of Computer Organization, Computer Design and Computer Architecture. Register Transfer Language and Micro operations: Register Transfer language, Register Transfer, Bus and memory transfers, Arithmetic Micro operations, logic micro operations, shift micro operations, Arithmetic logic shift unit. Basic Computer Organization and Design: Instruction codes, Computer Registers Computer instructions, Timing and Control, Instruction cycle, Memory Reference Instructions, Input – Output and Interrupt. 1.1 – Introduction, Block diagram of Digital Computer: 1. Define digital computers. Write short notes on it. Draw the block diagram of digital computers & explain its compounds. Ans: Digital Computers: The digital computer is a digital system that performs various computational tasks. Introduction:  A Digital computer can be considered as a digital system that performs various computational tasks.  The first electronic digital computer was developed in the late 1940s and was used primarily for numerical computations.  By convention, the digital computers use the binary number system, which has two digits: 0 and 1. A binary digit is called a bit.  A computer system is subdivided into two functional entities: Hardware and Software.  The hardware consists of all the electronic components and electromechanical devices that comprise the physical entity of the device.  The software of the computer consists of the instructions and data that the computer manipulates to perform various data-processing tasks. Block diagram of a digital computer: 1|Page

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Computer Organization & Architecture Riyaz Mohammed The structure/block diagram of digital computer consists of following components: i. ALU: The Arithmetic-Logic Logic unit that performs the computer's computational and logical functions. ii. RAM: Memory; more specifically, the computer's main, or fast, memory, also known as Random Access Memory (RAM). iii. Control Unit:: This is a component that directs other components of the computer to perform certain actions, such as directing the fetching of data or instructions from memory to be processed by the ALU; and iv. Man-Machine Interfaces nterfaces: i.e. input and output devices, such as keyboard for input and display monitor for output. 1.2 – Definition of Computer Organization, Computer Design and Computer Architecture:: 2. Define Computer Organization, Computer Design and Computer Architecture. Give their examples. Or Compare Computer Organization, Computer Design and Computer Architecture. Ans: Computer Organization: rganization: It is concerned with the way the hardware components operate and the way they are connected together to form the computer system. The various components are assumed to be in place and the task is to investigate the organizational structure to verify that the computer parts operate as intended. The examples are memory technology & control signals. 2|Page

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