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Note for Advanced Microprocessor - AMP by Neeraj Kumar

  • Advanced Microprocessor - AMP
  • Note
  • A.K.S. university - AKSU
  • Computer Science Engineering
  • B.Tech
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Unit 1 – Introduction to Microprocessor 1. Introduction to Microprocessor 2. Components of Microprocessor Definition:  “The microprocessor is a multipurpose, clock driven, register based, digital-integrated circuit which accepts binary data as input, processes it according to instructions stored in its memory, and provides results as output.”  “Microprocessor is a computer Central Processing Unit (CPU) on a single chip that contains millions of transistors connected by wires.” Introduction:  A microprocessor is designed to perform arithmetic and logic operations that make use of small number-holding areas called registers.  Typical microprocessor operations include adding, subtracting, comparing two numbers, and fetching numbers from one area to another.    Microprocessor is capable of performing various computing functions and making decisions to change the sequence of program execution. The microprocessor can be divided into three segments as shown in the figure, Arithmetic/logic unit (ALU), register array, and control unit. These three segment is responsible for all processing done in a computer Arithmetic and Logical Unit (ALU) Register Array Control Unit Figure: Components of Microprocessor Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU)  It is the unit of microprocessor where various computing functions are performed on the data.  It performs arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, and logical operations such as OR,AND, and Exclusive-OR.  It is also known as the brain of the computer system. Prof.Swati R. Sharma , CE Dept. | 2150707 – Microprocessor and Interfacing 1

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Unit 1 – Introduction to Microprocessor Register array  It is the part of the register in microprocessor which consists of various registers identified by letters such as B, C, D, E, H, and L.  Registers are the small additional memory location which are used to store and transfer data and programs that are currently being executed. Control unit  The control unit provides the necessary timing and control signals to all the operations in the microcomputer.  It controls and executes the flow of data between the microprocessor, memory and peripherals.  The control bus is bidirectional and assists the CPU in synchronizing control signals to internal devices and external components.  This signal permits the CPU to receive or transmit data from main memory. 3. System bus (data, address and control bus).     This network of wires or electronic pathways is called the 'Bus'. A system bus is a single computer bus that connects the major components of a computer system. It combines the functions of a data bus to carry information, an address bus to determine where it should be sent, and a control bus to determine its operation. The technique was developed to reduce costs and improve modularity. Figure: System Bus Prof.Swati R. Sharma , CE Dept. | 2150707 – Microprocessor and Interfacing 2

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Unit 1 – Introduction to Microprocessor Address Bus  It is a group of wires or lines that are used to transfer the addresses of Memory or I/O devices.  It is unidirectional.  The width of the address bus corresponds to the maximum addressing capacity of the bus, or the largest address within memory that the bus can work with.  The addresses are transferred in binary format, with each line of the address bus carrying a single binary digit.  Therefore the maximum address capacity is equal to two to the power of the number of lines present (2^lines). Data Bus  It is used to transfer data within Microprocessor and Memory/Input or Output devices.  It is bidirectional as Microprocessor requires to send or receive data.   Each wire is used for the transfer of signals corresponding to a single bit of binary data. As such, a greater width allows greater amounts of data to be transferred at the same time. Control Bus  Microprocessor uses control bus to process data, i.e. what to do    4. with the selected memory location. Some control signals are Read, Write and Opcode fetch etc. Various operations are performed by microprocessor with the help of control bus. This is a dedicated bus, because all timing signals are generated according to control signal. Microprocessor systems with bus organization Figure: Microprocessor systems with bus organization Prof.Swati R. Sharma , CE Dept. | 2150707 – Microprocessor and Interfacing 3

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       Unit 1 – Introduction to Microprocessor To design any meaningful application microprocessor requires support of other auxiliary devices. In most simplified form a microprocessor based system consist of a microprocessor, I/O (input/output) devices and memory. These components are interfaced (connected) with microprocessor over a common communication path called system bus. Typical structure of a microprocessor based system is shown in Figure. Here, microprocessor is master of the system and responsible for executing the program and coordinating with connected peripherals as required. Memory is responsible for storing program as well as data. System generally consists of two types of memories ROM (Read only and non-volatile) and RAM (Read/Write and volatile). I/O devices are used to communicate with the environment. Keyboard can be example of input devices and LED, LCD or monitor can be example of output device. Depending on the application level of sophistication varies in a microprocessor based systems. For example: washing machine, computer. Prof.Swati R. Sharma , CE Dept. | 2150707 – Microprocessor and Interfacing 4

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