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Note for Object Oriented Programming Using Cpp - OOP By Riyaz Pasha

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OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING USING C++ BY: RIYAZ MOHAMMED

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SYLLABUS UNIT – I Object-Oriented Thinking: Different paradigms for problem solving, need for OOP paradigm, differences between OOP and Procedure oriented programming, Overview of OOP concepts- Abstraction, Encapsulation, Inheritance and Polymorphism. C++ Basics: Structure of a C++ program, Data types, Declaration of variables, Expressions, Operators, Operator Precedence, Evaluation of expressions, Type conversions, Pointers, Arrays, Pointers and Arrays, Strings, Structures, References. Flow control statement- if, switch, while, for, do, break, continue, goto statements. Functions - Scope of variables, Parameter passing, Default arguments, inline functions, Recursive functions, Pointers to functions. Dynamic memory allocation and de-allocation operators-new and delete, Preprocessor directives. UNIT – II C++ Classes and Data Abstraction: Class definition, Class structure, Class objects, Class scope, this pointer, Friends to a class, Static class members, Constant member functions, Constructors and Destructors, Dynamic creation and destruction of objects, Data abstraction, ADT and information hiding. UNIT – III Inheritance: Defining a class hierarchy, Different forms of inheritance, Defining the Base and Derived classes, Access to the base class members, Base and Derived class construction, Destructors, Virtual base class. Virtual Functions and Polymorphism: Static and Dynamic binding, virtual functions, Dynamic binding through virtual functions, Virtual function call mechanism, Pure virtual functions, Abstract classes, Implications of polymorphic use of classes, Virtual destructors. UNIT – IV C++ I/O: I/O using C functions, Stream classes hierarchy, Stream I/O, File streams and String streams, Overloading operators, Error handling during file operations, Formatted I/O. UNIT – V Exception Handling: Benefits of exception handling, Throwing an exception, The try block, Catching an exception, Exception objects, Exception specifications, Stack unwinding, Rethrowing an exception, Catching all exceptions. ******

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Object Oriented Programming Using C++ Riyaz Mohammed UNIT – I Object-Oriented Thinking: Different paradigms for problem solving, need for OOP paradigm, differences between OOP and Procedure oriented programming, Overview of OOP concepts- Abstraction, Encapsulation, Inheritance and Polymorphism. C++ Basics: Structure of a C++ program, Data types, Declaration of variables, Expressions, Operators, Operator Precedence, Evaluation of expressions, Type conversions, Pointers, Arrays, Pointers and Arrays, Strings, Structures, References. Flow control statement- if, switch, while, for, do, break, continue, goto statements. Functions - Scope of variables, Parameter passing, Default arguments, inline functions, Recursive functions, Pointers to functions. Dynamic memory allocation and deallocation operators-new and delete, Preprocessor directives. 1.1 – Introduction: 1. Explain the concepts of the following: a. Software crisis. b. Software evolution/Software evaluation. c. Object – oriented languages. Ans: Software Crisis: Developments in software technology continue to be dynamic. New tools and techniques are announced in quick succession. This has forced the software engineers and industry to continuously look for new approaches to software design and development, and they are becoming more and more critical in view of the increasing complexity of software systems as well as the highly competitive nature of the industry. These rapid advances appear to have created a situation of crisis within the industry. The following issued need to be addressed to face the crisis: i. How to represent real-life entities of problems in system design? ii. How to design system with open interfaces? iii. How to ensure reusability and extensibility of modules? iv. How to develop modules that are tolerant of any changes in future? v. How to improve software productivity and decrease software cost? vi. How to improve the quality of software? vii. How to manage time schedules? viii. How to industrialize the software development process? Software Evolution/Software Evaluation: Ernest Tello, A well known writer in the field of artificial intelligence, compared the evolution of software technology to the growth of the tree. Like a tree, the software evolution has had distinct phases “layers” of growth. These layers were building up one by one over the last five decades as shown in below fig, with each layer representing 1|Page

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Object Oriented Programming Using C++ Riyaz Mohammed and improvement over the previous one. However, the analogy fails if we consider the life of these layers. In software system each of the layers continues to be functional, whereas in the case of trees, only the uppermost layer is functional. 1, 0 Machine Language Assembly Language Procedure Oriented Object Oriented Programming Fig: Layers of Computer Software Object Oriented Programming (OOP) is an approach to program organization and development that attempts to eliminate some of the pitfalls of conventional programming methods by incorporating the best of structured programming features with several powerful new concepts. It is a new way of organizing and developing programs and has nothing to do with any particular language. However, not all languages are suitable to implement the OOP concepts easily. Object – Oriented Languages: Object-oriented programming is not the right of any particular languages. Like structured programming, OOP concepts can be implemented using languages such as C and Pascal. However, programming becomes clumsy and may generate confusion when the programs grow large. A language that is specially id designed to support the OOP concepts makes it easier to implement them. The languages should support several of the OOP concepts to claim that they are object-oriented. Depending upon the features they support, they can be classified into the following two categories: i. Object-based programming languages. ii. Object-oriented programming languages. 2|Page

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