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Note for Environmental Science and Engineering - ESE by Mohit Katiyar

  • Environmental Science and Engineering - ESE
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Mohit Katiyar
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A Course Material on Environmental Science and Engineering By Mr. RAMAKRISHNAN.R M.E. ASSISTANT PROFESSOR DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING SASURIE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING VIJAYAMANGALAM – 638 056

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QUALITY CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the e-course material Subject Code : GE6351 Scubject : Environmental Science and Engineering Class : II Year MECHANICAL ENGINEERING being prepared by me and it meets the knowledge requirement of the university curriculum. Signature of the Author Name : RAMAKRISHNAN.R M.E. Designation: ASSISTANT PROFESSOR This is to certify that the course material being prepared by Mr.RAMAKRISHNAN.R M.E., is of adequate quality. He has referred more than five books among them minimum one is from abroad author. Signature of HD Name: E.R.SIVAKUMAR M.E.,(Ph.D.) SEAL ii

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CONTENTS SL. NO. 1.1 1.2 1.3 TOPICS PAGE NO. SYLLABUS ix UNIT - I ENVIRONMENT, ECOSYSTEM AND BIODIVERSITY ENVIRONMENT 1.1.1 Prerequisite discussions 1.1.2 Concepts 1.1.3 Scope of environmental science 1.1.4 Public awareness 1.1.5 Application 1.1.6 Risk and hazards in the environment ECOSYSTEM 1.2.1 Prerequisite Discussions 1.2.2 Concepts 1.2.3 Energy Flow in Ecosystem 1.2.4 Food Chain 1.2.5 Food Web 1.2.6 Ecological Pyramids 1.2.7 Nitrogen Cycle 1.2.8 Oxygen Cycle 1.2.9 Carbon Cycle 1.2.10 Phosphorous Cycle 1.2.11 Ecological Succession 1.2.12 Forest Ecosystem (Terrestrial Ecosystem) 1.2.13 Grassland Ecosystem (Terrestrial Ecosystem) 1.2.14 Desert Ecosystem 1.2.15 Aquatic Ecosystems 1.2.16 Lakes & Pond Ecosystem 1.2.17 Marine Or Ocean Ecosystem 1.2.18 Significance Of Ecosystems BIODIVERSITY 1.3.1 Prerequisite Discussions 1.3.2 Concepts : Levels of Biodiversity 1.3.3 Biogeographic Classification of India 1.3.4 Values of Biodiversity 1.3.5 Biodiversity at Global, National and Local Levels 1.3.6 India as a Megadiverse Nation 1.3.7 Hot- Spots of Biodiversity 1.3.8 Threats to Biodiversity 1.3.9 Endangered and Endemic Species of India 1.3.10 Conservation of Biodiversity 1.3.11 Significance of Biodiversity GLOSSARY REVIEW QUESTIONS iii 01 01 01 01 02 02 02 02 03 03 03 05 05 06 07 09 09 10 11 12 14 14 14 17 18 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 22 24 24 25 25 26 26 26

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2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 UNIT - II ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION 2.1.1 Prerequisite discussions 2.1.2 Concepts AIR POLLUTION 2.2.1 Causes of Air pollution 2.2.2 Effects of Air Pollution 2.2.3 Control measures 2.2.4 Mechanism of Peroxyacyl Nitrates(PAN) Generation 2.2.5 Formation of Smog 2.2.6 Formation of Oxygen 2.2.7 Control of Particulate and Gaseous Emission 2.2.8 Mitigation Procedures WATER POLLUTION 2.3.1 Types of pollutions 2.3.2 Causes of Water Pollution 2.3.3 Effects of Water pollution 2.3.4 Control measures of water pollution 2.3.5 Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Marine Water 2.3.6 Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Terrestrial Water 2.3.7 Water Quality Parameters – Physical, Chemical and Biological 2.3.8 Water Treatment SOIL POLLUTION 2.4.1 Causes of Soil Pollution 2.4.2 Effects of Soil Pollution 2.4.3 Control measures SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT 2.5.1 Types 2.5.2 Cause 2.5.5 Effects 2.5.6 Control measures 2.5.7 Significance of Solid Waste Management MARINE POLLUTION 2.6.1 Sources 2.6.2 Effects of marine pollution 2.6.3 Control measures of marine pollution NOISE POLLUTION 2.7.1 Sounds and their decibel scale 2.7.2 Sources of noise pollution 2.7.3 Effects of noise pollution 2.7.4 Control of noise pollution THERMAL POLLUTION 2.8.1 Causes 2.8.2 Effects 2.8.3 Control measures iv 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 29 29 30 31 32 33 33 33 33 34 34 35 36 37 37 37 37 37 37 38 38 38 38 38 38 38 39 39 39 39 40 40 40 40 40 40 40

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