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# Lab Manual for Geotechnical Engineering - GTE by JNTU Heroes

• Geotechnical Engineering- 1 - GTE-1
• Practical
• Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Anantapur (JNTU) College of Engineering (CEP), Pulivendula, Pulivendula, Andhra Pradesh, India - JNTUACEP
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Sr.No Name of Experiment 1 DETERMINATION OF MOISTURE CONTENT 2 DETERMINATION OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY 3 SAND REPLACEMENT METHOD 4 SIEVE ANALYSIS 5 HYDROMETER ANALYSIS 6 DETERMINATION OF LIQUID LIMIT 7 PLASTIC LIMIT TEST 8 SHRINKAGE LIMIT TEST 9 DIRECT SHEAR TEST 10 PROCTOR TEST

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1. DETERMINATION OF MOISTURE CONTENT OBJECTIVE Determine the natural content of the given soil sample. NEED AND SCOPE OF THE EXPERIMENT In almost all soil tests natural moisture content of the soil is to be determined. The knowledge of the natural moisture content is essential in all studies of soil mechanics. To sight a few, natural moisture content is used in determining the bearing capacity and settlement. The natural moisture content will give an idea of the state of soil in the field. DEFINITION The natural water content also called the natural moisture content is the ratio of the weight of water to the weight of the solids in a given mass of soil. This ratio is usually expressed as percentage. APPARATUS REQUIRED 1. Non-corrodible air-tight container. 2. Electric oven, maintain the temperature between 1050 C to 1100 C. 3. Desiccator. 4. Balance of sufficient sensitivity. PROCEDURE 1. Clean the container with lid dry it and weigh it (W1). 2. Take a specimen of the sample in the container and weigh with lid (W2). 3. Keep the container in the oven with lid removed. Dry the specimen to constant weight maintaining the temperature between 1050 C to 1100 C for a period varying with the type of soil but usually 16 to 24 hours. 4. Record the final constant weight (W3) of the container with dried soil sample. Peat and other organic soils are to be dried at lower temperature (say 600 ) possibly for a longer period.

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Certain soils contain gypsum which on heating loses its water if crystallization. If itb is suspected that gypsum is present in the soil sample used for moisture content determination it shall be dried at not more than 800 C and possibly for a longer time. OBSERVATIONS AND RECORDING Data and observation sheet for water content determination S.No. Sample No. 1 Weight of container with lid 1 2 3 W1 gm 2 Weight of container with lid +wet soil W2 gm 3 Weight of container with lid +dry soil W3 gm Water/Moisture content 4 W = [(W2−W3)/(W3−W1)]100 RESULT The natural moisture content of the soil sample is ________ REMARKS 1. A container with out lid can be used, when moist sample is weighed immediately after placing the container and oven dried sample is weighed immediately after cooling in desiccator. 2. As dry soil absorbs moisture from wet soil, dried samples should be removed before placing wet samples in the oven.

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2.DETERMINATION OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY OBJECTIVE Determine the specific gravity of soil fraction passing 4.75 mm I.S sieve by density bottle. NEED AND SCOPE The knowledge of specific gravity is needed in calculation of soil properties like void ratio, degree of saturation etc. DEFINITION Specific gravity G is defined as the ratio of the weight of an equal volume of distilled water at that temperature both weights taken in air. APPARATUS REQUIRED 1. Density bottle of 50 ml with stopper having capillary hole. 2. Balance to weigh the materials (accuracy 10gm). 3. Wash bottle with distilled water. 4. Alcohol and ether. PROCEDURE 1. Clean and dry the density bottle a. wash the bottle with water and allow it to drain. b. Wash it with alcohol and drain it to remove water. c. Wash it with ether, to remove alcohol and drain ether. 2. Weigh the empty bottle with stopper (W1) 3. Take about 10 to 20 gm of oven soil sample which is cooled in a desiccator. Transfer it to the bottle. Find the weight of the bottle and soil (W2). 4. Put 10ml of distilled water in the bottle to allow the soil to soak completely. Leave it for about 2 hours.