ANALOG ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY BY MADHAB CHNDRA TRIPATHY
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS: 1. Study of R.C phase shift oscillator by using OP-AMP 2. Study of Frequency Response of a common Emitter Amplifier 3. Study of different application of operational amplifier 4. Application of OP-AMP as differentiator, integrator and Square wave generator 5. Class A and B power amplifier 6. Study of Differential amplifier Circuits-DC bias operation 7. Design, assemble and Test of BJT biasing circuits 8. Study of Frequency Response of a common Source amplifier. 9. Study of Current mirror circuits 10.Study of Darlington connections 11.Square wave testing of an amplifier
EXPERIMENT-1 STUDY OF R-C PHASE SHIFT OSCILLATOR USING OP-AMP Aim: To calculate the frequency of the RC phase shift oscillator & to measure the phase angles at different RC sections. Apparatus Required: 1. Transistor BC107 2. Resistors: 10KΩ -3Nos 8KΩ or 10KΩ 22KΩ 1.2KΩ 100KΩ 3. Capacitors: 0.001µf – 3 Nos 10µF – 2Nos 1µf - 1 no. 4. Regulated power Supply 5. CRO Theory: RC-Phase shift Oscillator has a CE amplifier followed by three sections of RC phase shift feedback Networks the output of the last stage is return to the input of the amplifier. The values of R and C are chosen such that the phase shift of each RC section is 60º.Thus The RC ladder network produces a total phase shift of 180º between its input and output voltage for the given frequencies. Since CE Amplifier produces 180 º phases shift the total phase shift from the base of the transistor around the circuit and back to the base will be exactly 360º or 0º. This satisfies the Barkhausen condition for sustaining oscillations and total loop gain of this circuit is greater than or equal to 1, this condition used to generate the sinusoidal oscillations. The frequency of oscillations of RC-Phase Shift Oscillator is, 1
f= ----------2RC* √6 Circuit Diagram: Procedure 1. Make the connection as per the circuit diagram as shown above. 2. Observe the output signal and note down the output amplitude and time period (Td). 3. Calculate the frequency of oscillations theoretically and verify it practically (f=1/Td). 4. Calculate the phase shift at each RC section by measuring the time shifts (T p) between the final waveform and the waveform at that section by using the below formula.