Department of Civil Engineering
EXPERIMENT NO- 1
: Measurement of distance by Ranging and Chaining
EQUIPMENT- : Chain, Arrows, Tapes, Ranging Rods, Offset Rods, Cross staff or optical square,
Plumb bob, wooden mallet, pegs.
: By the various methods of determining distance the most accurate and
common method is the method of measuring distance with a chain or tape is called
Chaining. For work of ordinary precision a chain is used. But where great accuracy is
Required a steel tape is invariably used.
The term chaining was originally applied to measure Distance with a chain. The
term chaining is used to denote measuring distance with either chain or tape, In the process
of chaining, The survey party consists of a leader (the surveyor at the forward end of the
chain) a follower (the surveyor at the rare end of the chain and an assistant to establish
intermediate points) .
The accuracy to which measurement can be made with chain and tape
varies with the methods used and precautions exercised. The precision of chaining. For
ordinary work, ranges from 1/1000 to 1/30,000 and precise measurement such as Baseline
may be of the order of 1000000.