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Lab Manuals for Computer Network - CN By Shivansh Singh

  • Computer Network - CN
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EXPERIMENT - 1 Aim: Study of different types of Network cables and Practically implement the cross-wired cable and straight through cable using clamping tool. Apparatus (Components): RJ-45 connector, Clamping Tool, Twisted pair Cable. Procedure: To do these practical following steps should be done: 1. Start by stripping off about 2 inches of the plastic jacket off the end of the cable. Be very careful at this point, as to not nick or cut into the wires, which are inside. Doing so could alter the characteristics of your cable, or even worse render is useless. Check the wires, one more time for nicks or cuts. If there are any, just whack the whole end off, and start over. 2. Spread the wires apart, but be sure to hold onto the base of the jacket with your other hand. You do not want the wires to become untwisted down inside the jacket. Category 5 cable must only have ½ of an inch of ‘untwisted’ wire at the end; otherwise it will be ‘out of spec’. At this point, you obviously have ALOT more than ½ of an inch of un-twisted wire. 3. You have 2 end jacks, which must be installed on your cable. If you are using a pre-made cable, with on of the ends whacked off, you only have end to install – the crossed over end. Below are two diagrams, which show how you need to arrange the cables for each type of cable end. Decide at this point which end you are making and examine the associated picture below. Diagram shows you how to prepare Cross wired connection COMP. NETWORKS LAB [1] SHIVANSH SINGH (109097)

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Diagram shows you how to prepare straight through wired connection COMP. NETWORKS LAB [2] SHIVANSH SINGH (109097)

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EXPERIMENT - 2 Aim: Study of following Network Devices in Detail Repeater Hub Switch Bridge Router Gate Way Apparatus (Software): No software or hardware needed. Procedure: Following should be done to understand this practical. 1. Repeater: Functioning at Physical Layer. A repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal and retransmits it at a higher level and/or higher power, or onto the other side of an obstruction, so that the signal can cover longer distances. Repeater have two ports, so cannot be use to connect for more than two devices. 2. Hub: An Ethernet hub, active hub, network hub, repeater hub, hub or concentrator is a device for connecting multiple twisted pair or fibre optic Ethernet devices together and making them act as a single network segment. Hubs work at the physical layer (layer 1) of the OSI model. The device is a form of multiport repeater. Repeater hubs also participate in collision detection, forwarding a jam signal to all ports if it detects a collision. 3. Switch: A network switch or switching hub is a computer networking device that connects network segments. The term commonly refers to a network bridge that processes and routes data at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model. Switches that additionally process data at the network layer (layer 3 and above) are often referred to as Layer 3 switches or multilayer switches. 4. Bridge: A network bridge connects multiple network segments at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model. In Ethernet networks, the term bridge formally means a device that behaves according to the IEEE 802.1D standard. A bridge and switch are very much alike; a switch being a bridge with numerous ports. Switch or Layer 2 switch is often used interchangeably with bridge. Bridges can analyse incoming data packets COMP. NETWORKS LAB [3] SHIVANSH SINGH (109097)

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to determine if bridge is able to send the given packet to another segment of the network 5. Router: A router is an electronic device that interconnects two or more computer networks, and selectively interchanges packets of data between them. Each data packet contains address information that a router can use to determine if the source and destination are on the same network, or if the data packet must be transferred from one network to another. Where multiple routers are used in a large collection of interconnected networks, the routers exchange information about target system addresses, so that each router can build up a table showing the preferred paths between any two systems on the interconnected networks. 6. Gateway: In a communication network, a network node equipped for interfacing with another network that uses different protocols. A gateway may contain devices such as protocol translators, impedance matching devices, rate converters, fault isolators, or signal translators as necessary to provide system interoperability. It also requires the establishment of mutually acceptable administrative procedures between both networks. A protocol translation/mapping gateway interconnects networks with different network protocol technologies by performing the require protocol conversions. COMP. NETWORKS LAB [4] SHIVANSH SINGH (109097)

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