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Lab Manual for Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines - FMHM by ABHISHEK KUMAR

  • Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines - FMHM
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EXPERIMENT No-01 AIM OF THE EXPERIMENT:Study of pressure measuring devices like Manometer & Bourdon tube pressure gauge. APPARATUS REQUIRED:SL.NO EQUIPMENT 01 Manometer 02 Bourdon tube pressure gauge SPECIFICATION U-tube QUANTITY 01 01 THEORY:1-STUDY OF MANOMETER:- ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ A Manometer is slightly improved form of a piezometer tube for measuring high as well as negative pressure. A simple manometer, in its simplest form, consists of a tube bent in Ushape, one end of which is connected to the vessel containing the liquid whose intensity of pressure is to be measured and other end is open to the atmosphere. The liquid used in the bent tube is generally Mercury (Hg) which is 13.6 times heavier than water. The pressure of the liquid containing in the vessel will force the manometric liquid in the left hand vertical limb of the U-tube downward and will force the manometric liquid to rise up in the right hand vertical limb of the U-tube through equal distance. This will happen when the pressure in the vessel is greater than atmospheric pressure. If pressure of liquid in the vessel is less than atmospheric pressure ,the deflection of manometric liquid will be observed in the left hand limb of the u-tube. Since below the surface A-B, the liquid is homogenous and since the liquid is at rest, the pressure along the plane A-B in the left hand limb of the Utube is equal to the pressure in the right hand limb of the U-tube along the plane A-B. Then by measuring the difference in mercury level above line A-B ,and equating the pressure at A and pressure at B we can measure pressure of liquid flowing in the pipe. 2-STUDY OF BOURDON TUBE PRESSURE GAUGE:- ➢ Bourdon pressure gauge consists of a circular spring tube A, called Bourdon tube . SCTEVT DIPLOMA FM & HM LAB. MANUAL-4TH SEMESTER, MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Page 1

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➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ The Bourdon tube is made up of special quality bronze and oval in cross section . One end of the Bourdon tube is closed and connected to a link L and the other end is secured in a vertical tube B. The link L connects the closed end of the Bourdon tube to a toothed sector C which is hinged at O. The toothed sector C gears with a pinion D which is mounted on a central spindle carrying a pointer P. The pointer moves on a dial graduated in pressure unit(i.e. bar) The pressure gauge is connected to the vessel containing fluid under pressure. Due to fluid pressure in the Bourdon tube,it has tendency to achieve a circular shape. But before the tube can do so,it must bestraighten itself. This tendency of straightening moves the free end of the Bourdon tube outwards. As a result, the toothed sector moves about the hinge O and causes the pinion D to rotate which, inturn moves the pointer F to move on a dial graduated in bar. The movement of the free end of the Bourdon tube is proportional to the difference between the external atmospheric pressure and internal fluid pressure. Hence the pressure gauge records the gauge pressure which is the difference between fluid pressure and outside atmospheric pressure. CONCLUSION:Hence we successfully studied about Manometer and Bourdon tube pressure gauge. SCTEVT DIPLOMA FM & HM LAB. MANUAL-4TH SEMESTER, MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Page 2

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EXPERIMENT NO.-02 AIM OF THE EXPERIMENT:Study of dissected models of turbines and pumps. APPARATUS REQUIRED:SL.NO 01 02 03 04 05 EQUIPMENT A A A A A model model model model model of of of of of pelton turbine Francis turbine Kaplan Turbine Centrifugal pump Reciprocating pump SPECIFICATION Dissected Dissected Dissected Dissected Dissected QUANTITY type type type type type 01 01 01 01 01 THEORY:1-STUDY OF TURBINES:The hydraulic machine which converts the hydraulic energy into mechanical energy is called Turbines. Turbines are 3-types:-Pelton Turbine, Francis Turbine&Kaplan Turbine. ➢ PELTON TURBINE:1. It is a tangential flow impulse Turbine which is used for high head and low discharge. ➢ 2. Main parts of this turbine are:-Nozzle with and guide mechanism, Runner with buckets, casing . i) ii) iii) 3. Nozzle with Guide Mechanism:- It controls the flow rate of water into the turbine and controls the turbine speed according to desired load. It converts the pressure energy of water into Kinetic Energy. Runner with uckets:-It is a circular disc which is mounted on a horizontal shaft. The buckets are fixed to the periphery of the runner uniformly at equidistance spaces. Casing:-It prevents splashing of water into the turbine and protect the turbine against dust and dirt. Working principle:-The jet of water from the nozzle strikes at the center of the buckets with a very high velocity and leaves the buckets with a low velocity and produces impacts on buckets. Due to the impacts, turning moment acts on the runner which now rotates at high speed. SCTEVT DIPLOMA FM & HM LAB. MANUAL-4TH SEMESTER, MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Page 3

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FRANCIS TURBINE:1. Francis turbine is an inward flow reaction turbine, in which water flows radially from outwards towards the axis of rotation of the turbine shaft. 2. Main parts of this turbine are:-casing, guide mechanism, runners, draft tube. i) Casing:-It is a spiral shape and surrounds the runner and guide blades. ii) Guide mechanism:-It consists of a no. of stationary guide vanes which guide the water to enter into the moving vanes without any shock. iii) Runner:-It is a circular disc having series of radial curved vanes which are so designed that water enters into the vanes without any shock. iv) Draft tube:-The water through the runner passes on the tail race through a tube called draft tube. 3. Working principle:- water from the reservoir is led to the turbine through the penstock then enters into the Casing with guide vanes and runner. Flowing through the guide vanes, water radially strikes the runner blades and causes the runner to rotate. Then the water flows to the tailrace through draft tube. ➢ KAPLAN TURBINE:1. In propeller turbine, the vanes are fixed on the boss and vane angles are constant. For this reason, discharge remains constant for all loads, weather low or high. This results in reduction of efficiency at small loads. 2. In order to overcome this problem Austrian scientist Kaplan Victor introduced an axial flow turbine in which he introduced an arrangement which automatically changes the vane angle by means of “SERVO MOTOR MECHANISM” which effects change in flow rate of water through the turbine according to load condition. It is used only that place where load varies frequently. If load remains constant, propeller turbine is used. 3. Kaplan turbine is a vertical axial flow reaction turbine .Here water flows into the “scroll casing” from “pen stock” and from their water flows over the guide blades into the runner blades. Water exerts force to the runner blades due to pressure difference between inlet and outlet side of the runner. This force causes the turbine to rotate about a vertical axis. Ultimately water leaves the runner through a draft tube into the tail race. ➢ 2-STUDY OF PUMPS:➢ The hydraulic machine which converts the mechanical energy into hydraulic energy is called Turbines. Turbines are 2-types:-Centrifugal pump &Reciprocating pump. SCTEVT DIPLOMA FM & HM LAB. MANUAL-4TH SEMESTER, MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Page 4

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