×
ARE YOU REALLY WORKING HARD ENOUGH TO ACHIEVE YOUR GOALS?
--Your friends at LectureNotes
Close

Solution to Previous Year Exam Questions for Professional Ethics and Human Values - PEHV of KIIT by Yunus 99907

  • Professional Ethics and Human Values - PEHV
  • 2018
  • PYQ Solution
  • Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology - KIIT
  • Civil Engineering
  • B.Tech
  • 2568 Views
  • 55 Offline Downloads
  • Uploaded
0 User(s)
Download PDFOrder Printed Copy

Share it with your friends

Leave your Comments

Text from page-1

HUMAN VALUES AND PROFESSIONAL ETHICS SAMPLE QUESTIONS WITH SOLUTIONS UNIT 1 Q 1. What do you mean by values or human values? What is value education? Why there is a need of value education? How does value education helps in fulfilling one's aspirations? ANS. Character oriented education that instils basic values and ethnic values in one’s psyche is called ‘Value Based Education’. The subject that enables us to understand ‘what is valuable’ for human happiness is called value education. Value education is important to help everyone in improving the value system that he/she holds and puts it to use. Once, one has understood his/ her values in life he/she can examine and control the various choices he/she makes in his/ her life. Value education enables us to understand our needs and visualize our goals correctly and also helps to remove our confusions and contradictions and bring harmony at all levels. It also helps remove our confusions and contradictions and enables us to rightly utilize the technological innovations. Values form the basis for all our thoughts, behaviours and actions. Once we know what is valuable to us, these values becomes the basis, the anchor for our actions. We also need to understand the universality of various human values, because only then we can have a definite and common program for value education. Then only we can be assured of a happy and harmonious human society. Q 2. Explain the process of value education. ANS. The process for value education has to be that of self-exploration, which includes two things: verification at the level of natural acceptance and experiential validation in living. Self exploration is the process to find out what is valuable to me by investigating within myself, what is right for me, true for me, has to be judged within myself. Through self exploration we get the value of ourself. Various aspects of reality facilitating the understanding of human values will be presented as proposals. We need to verify these proposals for our self and examine our living in this light. Q 3. What are the basic guidelines for value education? (UPTU 2011 – 12) ANS. The subject that enables us to understand ‘what is valuable’ for human happiness is called value education. In order to qualify for any course on value education, the following guidelines for the content of the course are important: • Universal: It needs to be applicable to all the human beings irrespective of cast, creed, nationalities, religion, etc., for all times and regions. • Rational: It has to appeal to human reasoning. It has to be amenable to reasoning and not based on dogmas or blind beliefs. • Natural and verifiable: It has to be naturally acceptable to the human being who goes through the course and when we live on the basis of such values it leads to our happiness. It needs to be experientially verifiable, and not based on dogmas, beliefs or assumptions. • All encompassing: Value education is aimed at transforming our consciousness and living. Hence, it needs to cover all the dimensions (thought, behaviour, work and realization) and levels (individual, family, society, nature and existence) of human life and profession. • Leading to harmony: The value education ultimately is targeted to promote harmony within the individual, among human beings and with nature. Q 4. What do you understand by the value of an entity? What is the value of a human being? (UPTU 2009-10) ANS. The value of any unit in this existence is its participation in the larger order of which it is part e.g. value of a pen is that it can write. Here writing is the participation of the pen in the bigger order in which pen, paper, human being, all are present. Value of an eye is that it can be used for seeing. Value of a vegetable plant is that it gives nutrition to animals and humans. 1

Text from page-2

The value of human being is the participation of human being at different level in this order. The participation of the human being is seen in two forms: behaviour and work. The participation of human being pertaining to behaviour are the nine values in relationship, viz. trust, respect, affection, care, guidance, reverence, glory, gratitude and love. Likewise, working with material things, we have two values: utility value and artistic value. All these values are nothing but the participation of the human being in different dimensions of living. Q 5. What is the need for value education? Write a short note on the need for value education in today’s seenario. (MTU 2010 – 11) ANS. The subject that enables us to understand ‘what is valuable’ for human happiness is called value education. Need for value education is: • Correct identification of our aspirations. The subject which enables us to understand ‘what is valuable’ for human happiness is called ‘value education’ (VE). Thus, VE enables us to understand our needs and visualize our goals correctly and also indicate the direction for their fulfilment. It also helps to remove our confusions and contradictions and bring harmony at all levels. • Understanding universal human values to fulfil our aspirations in continuity. Values form the basis for all our thoughts, behaviours and actions. Once we know what is valuable to us, these values becomes the basis, the anchor for our actions. We also need to understand the universality of various human values, because only then we can have a definite and common program for value education. Then only we can be assured of a happy and harmonious human society. • Complimentarity of values and skills. To fulfil our aspirations both values and skills are necessary. When we identify and set the right goals and produced in right direction. This is known as value domain, the domain of wisdom, and when we learn and practices to actualize this goal to develop the techniques to make this happen in real life, in various dimensions of human endeavour (struggle). This is known as domain of skills. Hence, there is an essential complementarity between values and skills for the success of any human endeavour. For example, I want to lead a healthy life. Only wishing for good health will not help me keep my body fit and healthy and without having understood the meaning of health, I will not be able to choose things correctly to keep my body fit and healthy. • Evaluation of our beliefs. Each one of us believes in certain things and we base our values on these beliefs, be they false or true which may or may not be true in reality. These believes come to us from what we read, see, hear, what our parents tells us, our friends talk about, what the magazines talk of, what we see from TV etc. Value Education helps us to evaluate our beliefs and assumed values. • Technology and human values. The present education system has become largely skill-based. The prime emphasis is on science and technology. However, science and technology can only help to provide the means to achieve what is considered valuable. It is not within the scope of science and technology to provide the competence of deciding what really is valuable. Value Education is a crucial missing link in the present education system. Because of this deficiency, most of our efforts may prove to be counterproductive and serious crises at the individual, societal and environmental level are manifesting. Q 6. What is the need for value education in technical and other professional institutions? ANS. The subject that enables us to understand ‘what is valuable’ for human happiness is called value education. The present education system has become largely skill-based. The prime emphasis is on science and technology. However, science and technology can only help to provide the means to achieve what is considered valuable. It is not within the scope of science and technology to provide the competence of deciding what really is valuable. Value Education is a crucial missing link in the present education system. Because of this deficiency, most of our efforts may prove to be counterproductive and serious crises at the individual, societal and environmental level are manifesting. Q 7. Illustrate the content of value education. What should be the content of value education to make it complete? How do values relate to our day to day living? (UPTU 2010-11) 2

Text from page-3

ANS. The subject that enables us to understand ‘what is valuable’ for human happiness is called value education. The scope of value education includes all dimensions (thoughts, behaviour, work and realization) and all levels (individual, family, society and nature – existence). Accordingly, the content of value education will be to understand myself, my aspirations, my happiness; understand the goal of human life comprehensively, understand the other entities in nature, the innate inter-connectedness, the coexistence in the nature- existence and finally the role of human being in this nature/existence entirely. Hence, it has to encompass understanding of harmony at various levels and finally, learning to live in accordance with this understanding by being vigilant to one’s thoughts, behaviour and work. Q 8. Values and skill complement each other. Elaborate. “For success in any Human Endeavour both values and skills are required.” Explain. What do you mean by values? How do they differ from skills? How are values and skills complementary? Explain how production skills and human values are complementary. Give two examples. (UPTU, 2011 – 12) ANS. Values means importance or participation and skills means qualities, training, and capabilities. To fulfil our aspirations both values and skills are necessary. When we identify and set the right goals and produced in right direction. This is known as value domain, the domain of wisdom. Basically we must know what really is useful to achieve human happiness, the happiness to all and for all the time. And when we learn and practices to actualize this goal to develop the techniques to make this happen in real life, in various dimensions of human endeavour (struggle). This is known as domain of skills. Hence, there is an essential complementarity between values and skills for the success of any human endeavour. For example, I want to lead a healthy life. Only wishing for good health will not help me keep my body fit and healthy and without having understood the meaning of health, I will not be able to choose things correctly to keep my body fit and healthy. So i have to learn the skills to achieve the goal of good health i.e. food to be consumed, the physical workout to be designed. So without knowing the meaning of good health, health cannot be achieved and also it is necessary to make use of the goal to achieve the goal of the goal. Q 9. Define self exploration. What is the content of self – exploration? ANS. Self exploration is the process to find out what is valuable to me by investigating within myself, what is right for me, true for me, has to be judged within myself. Through self exploration we get the value of ourself. We live with different entirety (family, friends, air, soil, water, trees, etc.) and we want to understand our relationship with all these. For this we need to start observing inside. The main focus of self-exploration is myself - the human being. Content of self exploration is just finding answers to the following fundamental questions of all human beings: 1. The Desire/Goal: What is my (human) Desire/ Goal? What do I really want in life, or what is the goal of human life? 2. Program: What is my (human) program for fulfilling the desire? How to fulfil it? What is the program to actualize the above? In short, the above two questions cover the whole domain of human aspirations and human endeavour. Thus, they form the content of self- exploration. Q 10. What do you mean by your natural acceptance and experiential validation? ANS. Natural acceptance is a mechanism of self exploration. Self exploration is a method to explore ourself. Natural acceptance is process to understand ourself first. Natural acceptance implies unconditional and total acceptance of the self, people and environment. It also refers to the absence of any exception from others. In other words, Natural acceptance is way to accept the good things naturally. Experiential validation is a process that infuses direct experience with the learning environment and content. It may be regarded as a philosophy and methodology in which the direct experience and focused reflection of the individual helps to increase knowledge, develop skill and clarify values. Most of what we know about our self is not only through our own opinion of our self but also because of how others view us. 3

Text from page-4

When what we already believe to be true of us is validated by some situations, phenomena or outcomes. We may term it as experiential validation. Q 11. Explain the process of self-exploration with a diagram. “Process of self exploration leads to realization and understanding.” Explain with example. ANS. Self exploration is the process to find out what is valuable to me by investigating within myself, what is right for me, true for me, has to be judged within myself. Through self exploration we get the value of ourself. The process of self exploration is a follows: First of all we have to keep in mind that, Whatever is being presented is a PROPOSAL. • Don’t assume it to be true immediately, nor reject it without proper exploration. • Verify it in your own right, on the basis of it being naturally acceptable to you, o Not just on the basis of scriptures o Not on the basis of equipment/instrument data o Not on the basis of the assertion by other human beings. Therefore, it is essential to carefully ponder over these on your own right. Neither accept these as true immediately nor reject them prematurely without proper exploration. Don’t just accept / reject these only on the basis of the following: • Because something like this/ different from this, has been mentioned in scriptures, • Or, because it has been preached/ denied by some great men, • Or, a large number of people possess such a view / a different view, • Or it is claimed to have been verified through some physical instrument or, claimed that this is beyond the domain of verifiability by physical instruments. Then what to do • Verify on the basis of your natural acceptance • Live accordingly to validate it experientially o If the proposal is true in behaviour with human leads to mutual happiness o If the proposal is true in work with rest of the nature leads to mutual prosperity Remember, it is a process of self- exploration, therefore, it has to be authenticated by us alone by means of verification at the level of natural acceptance and experiential validation. The process is shown in the diagram below: Process of Self Exploration - It is a proposal o Don’t assume it to be true o Verify it in your own right  Not on the basis of scriptures  Not on the basis of readings from instrument  Not on the basis of others - Self verification live according to Proposal Verify on the basis of your natural acceptance behaviour with human leads to mutual happiness work with rest of the nature leads to mutual prosperity But this process is not complete. It will be completed when on verification on the basis of natural acceptance and testing in our living ultimately results in ‘realization’ and ‘understanding’ in us. • Verify on the basis of your natural acceptance • Live accordingly to validate it experientially o If the proposal is true in behaviour with human leads to mutual happiness o If the proposal is true in work with rest of the nature leads to mutual prosperity • Results in realization and understanding • On having realization and understanding we get o Assurance o Satisfaction 4

Lecture Notes