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Cost Estimating Manual for Projects M 3034.03 April 2015 Engineering and Regional Operations Development Division, Design Office, SAEO

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Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Information Materials can be provided in alternative formats by calling the ADA Compliance Manager at 360-705-7097. Persons who are deaf or hard of hearing may contact that number via the Washington Relay Service at 7-1-1. Title VI Notice to Public It is Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) policy to ensure no person shall, on the grounds of race, color, national origin, or sex, as provided by Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise discriminated against under any of its federally funded programs and activities. Any person who believes his/her Title VI protection has been violated may file a complaint with WSDOT’s Office of Equal Opportunity (OEO). For Title VI complaint forms and advice, please contact OEO’s Title VI Coordinator at 360-705-7082 or 509-324-6018. To get the latest information on individual WSDOT publications, sign up for email updates at:  www.wsdot.wa.gov/publications/manuals

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Foreword WSDOT’s vision is to be the best at providing a sustainable and integrated multimodal transportation system. Its mission is to provide and support safe, reliable, and cost-effective transportation options to improve livable communities and economic vitality for people and businesses. Estimators should be shielded from pressures to keep estimates within desired amounts. This update to the WSDOT Cost Estimating Guide is part of an ongoing process to keep technical information relevant and current, as well as provide consistency with the department’s vision. More of an art than a science, cost estimating requires a thorough understanding of project scope, past price history, and current market conditions, as well as with a generous application of human judgment. Key goals of the estimating process described in this manual include: 1. Departmentwide priority on estimating, managing, and controlling costs: • Fully developed and integrated policies, processes, and tools for cost estimation, management, and control • Baseline estimates that align with early project scope development and include an initial assessment of uncertainty • Clearly defined and documented cost management endorsement processes to authorize changes in scope and cost after the baseline estimate is established • Dedicated resources that are focused on effective scoping, project cost estimating, and cost management 2. Reliable and accurate estimates: • Well-documented and complete cost estimates • Clearly spelled-out assumptions, risks, and uncertainties that can be easily communicated 3. Statewide uniformity and consistency: • Uniform application and consistent statewide use of well-documented processes, tools, and templates • Use of processes and tools during the planning, scoping, design, and letting phases WSDOT Cost Estimating Manual for Projects M 3034.03 April 2015 Page i

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Foreword 4. Improved communication and credibility with external stakeholders: • Consistent and clear communication of cost estimates to external stakeholders at milestone points • The ability to communicate cost estimates with confidence, leading to stronger relationships with external stakeholders, greater possibility for collaboration, and increased funding support of transportation initiatives 5. Clear accountability: • Accountability for cost estimating and cost management at all levels of the agency • Defined roles and responsibilities for every person involved • Accountability that is tracked at key milestones in the process This manual is intended as a guide for developing and managing project cost. It provides policies, rules, procedures, and tools to aid WSDOT staff in preparing project cost estimates and managing cost throughout WSDOT’s project development process. Although the manual is primarily written for project managers and estimators, it is strongly recommended that others involved in WSDOT’s project delivery activities familiarize themselves with this information. The term "project cost estimate," as used during the project development process, includes all direct capital outlay costs, including right of way, structures, and landscaping, but does not normally include indirect capital outlay support costs. Project cost estimates should be as accurate as possible. Estimates should never be artificially reduced to stay within the funding limits, nor should they be reduced to make available more funding for region projects. Likewise, project cost estimates should not be artificially raised beyond the contingency percentages provided for in this manual unless adequately justified. Cost estimating and cost management tools continue to be developed and will be added to the department’s estimating tool box as they become available. Please note that while cost estimating in support of design-bid-build projects is covered in depth in this manual, there are certain other conditions, such as design-build project delivery, accelerated projects, and accelerated estimates, which are not addressed in detail. Important Notice The detailed estimate of any phase of an estimate shall not be disclosed to the public and will be kept confidential until the end of the bid opening. Page ii WSDOT Cost Estimating Manual for Projects M 3034.03 April 2015