Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION OF AUTOMATION 1.1 DEFINATION OF AUTOMATION Automation is a delegation of human control functions to technical equipment to increase the productivity, accuracy, efficiency, quality, safety etc. and to decrease the time, cost, labour, and maintenance. 1.2 TYPES OF AUTOMATION Automation can be divided in four parts: 1) Home Automation 2) Official Automation 3) Building Automation 4) Industrial Automation
1.2.1 Home Automation As the world gets more and more technologically advanced, we find new technology coming in deeper and deeper into our personal lives even at home. Home automation is becoming more and more popular around the world and is becoming a common practice. 1.2.2 Office Automation Office automation refers to the varied computer machinery and software used to digitally create, collect, store, manipulate, and relay office information needed for accomplishing basic tasks and goals. Raw data storage, electronic transfer, and the management of electronic business information comprise the basic activities of an office automation system. Office automation helps in optimizing or automating existing office procedures. The backbone of office automation is a LAN, which allows users to transmit data, mail and even voice across the network. 1.2.3 Building Automation Building automation describes the functionality provided by the control system of a building. A building automation system (BAS) is an example of a distributed control system. The control system is a computerized, intelligent network of electronic devices, designed to monitor and control the mechanical and lighting systems in a building. 1.2.4 Industrial Automation
Industrial automation is the use of robotic devices to complete manufacturing tasks. In this day and age of computers, industrial automation is becoming increasingly important in the manufacturing process because computerized or robotic machines are capable of handling repetitive tasks quickly and efficiently. Machines used in industrial automation are also capable of completing mundane tasks that are not desirable to workers. 1.3 Impact of Automation Automation has had a notable impact in a wide range of highly visible industries beyond manufacturing. Once-ubiquitous telephone operators have been replaced largely by automated telephone switchboards and answering machines. Medical processes such as primary screening in electrocardiography or radiography and laboratory analysis of human genes, sera, cells, and tissues are carried out at much greater speed and accuracy by automated systems. Automated teller machines have reduced the need for bank visits to obtain cash and carry out transactions. In general, automation has been responsible for the shift in the world economy from agrarian to industrial in the 19th century and from industrial to services in the 20th century. The widespread impact of industrial automation raises social issues, among them is impact on employment. Historical concerns about the effects of automation date back to the beginning of the industrial revolution, when a social movement of English textile machine operators in the early 1800s known as the Luddites protested against Jacquard's automated weaving looms often by destroying such textile machines— that they felt threatened their jobs. One author made the following case. When automation was first introduced, it caused widespread fear. It was thought that the displacement of human operators by computerized systems would lead to severe unemployment.
At first glance, automation might appear to devalue labor through its replacement with less-expensive machines.