The basic unit of study: Soil Profiles
upper or A
middle or B
lower or C
This diagram shows simplified
A soil profile is a vertical crosssection of a soil. It is divided into a
number of distinct layers, referred to
The horizons are normally
designated by symbols and letters.
The presence or absence of
particular horizons allows pedologists
(soil scientists) to classify the soil.
In addition, the organic or O horizon
can form above the mineral soilcommonly in forested areas,
resulting from the dead plant and