NOTES ON MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS SUBJECT CODE: MGT103 Prepared by: Dr. S. R. Mohapatra, Principal Debidutta Acharya, Faculty (Finance & Economics), College of IT & Management Education (CIME), Bhubaneswar (A Constituent College of BPUT, Odisha)
MODULE-1:- BASIC ECONOMIC CONCEPTS AND DECISION MAKING Nature and Scope of Managerial Economics Management is the guidance, leadership and control of the efforts of a group of people towards some common objective. It is coordination, an activity or an ongoing process, a purposive process and an art of getting thing, done by other people. Economics, on the other hand, is a social science, chiefly concerned. With the way of society chooses its limited resources, which have alternative uses, to produce goods and services for present and future consumption, and to provide for economic growth. It is obvious from his definition that economics engaged in analyzing and providing answers to manifestation us the most fundamental problem of scarcity. Scarcity of resources results from two fundamental facts of life. i) Human wants are virtually unlimited and insatiable. ii) Economic resources to satisfy the human wants are limited. Thus, we can‘t have everything we want; we must make choices broadly in regard to the following. a) What to produce? b) How to produce? c) For whom to produce? The three choice problems have become the three central issues of an economy. Managerial Economics can be viewed as an application of that part of economics that focuses on topics such as risk, demand production, cost, pricing, Market structure etc. Understanding these principles will help to develop a rational decision making perspective and will also sharpen the analytical frame work that the executive must bring to bear on managerial decisions. The primary role of economics in management is making optimizing decisions where constraints apply. The application of principle of Managerial Economics will help manager ensure that resources are allocated efficiently within the firm and that the firm makes appropriate reactions to changes in the economic environment. Thus Managerial Economics is concerned with application of economic concepts and analysis the problem of formulating rational managerial decision.
Study of Managerial Economics essentially involves the analysis of certain major subject like. The business firm and its objective, Demand analysis estimation and for casting, production and cost analysis, pricing theory and policies, profit analysis, with special reference to breakeven point; capital Budgeting for investment decisions; completion etc. Demand Analysis and Forecasting help a manager in the earliest stage in choosing the product and in planning output levels. A study of demand elasticity goes a long way in helping the firm to fix prices for its products. The theory of cost also forms an essential part of this subject. Estimation is necessary for making output variations with fixed plants or for the purpose of new investment in the same line of production or in a different venture. The firm works for profits and optional or near maximum profits depend upon accurate price decisions. Decision making by management is purely economic in nature, because it involves choices among a set of alternatives alternative course of action. The optimal decision making is an act of optimal economic choice, considering objectives and constraints. This justifies an evaluation of management decisions through concepts, precepts, tools and techniques of economic analysis. Objective of the firm:Firms are a useful device for producing and distributing goods and services. They are economic entities and are best analyzed in the context of an economic model. Traditionally, the objective of a firm is to maximize profit. It is assumed that managers consistently make decisions to maximize profit of the firm. They make decisions that reduce current year profits, so as to increase profits in the future years. To achieve this objective, they incur expenditure on Research and Development(R & D) activities, new capital equipments and major marketing programs, which reduce the profits initially but significantly raise it in the future. Thus, given that both the current and future profits are important, it is assumed that the goal of a firm is to maximize the present or discounted value of all future profits [PV (πt)]. The goal or objective function for the firm may be expressed as:Maximize: PV (πt)= + + --------------------- +
Where πt is profit in time period t, and r is an appropriate discount rate used to reduce future profits to their present value. Using the Greek letter ∑ indicates that each of the terms on the right hand side of the given equation have been added together. Then, the objective function can be written as : Maximize: PV (π) = Theory of Demand The theory and analysis of demand provides several useful insights for business decision making. Demand is one of the most important aspects of Business Economics, since a firm would not be established or survive if a sufficient demand for its product didn‘t exist or couldn‘t be created. That is, a firm could have the most efficient production techniques and the most effective management, but without a demand for its product that is sufficient to cover at least all production and selling costs over the long run, it simply would not survive. Demand is the quantity of a good or service that customers are willing and able to purchase during a specified period under a given set of economic conditions. The time frame might be an hour, a day, a month or a year. Conditions to be considered include the price of the good in question, prices and availability of related goods, expectations of price changes, consumers‘ incomes, consumers taste and preferences, advertising expenditures and so on. The amount of the product that consumers are prepared to purchase, its demand, depends on all these factors. The ability of goods and services to satisfy consumer wants is the basis for consumer demand. This is an important topic in micro-economics because managers must know why consumers demand their products before demand can be met or created. Consumer behavior theory rests upon three basic assumptions regarding the utility tied to consumption. First, ―More is better‖ :- Consumers will always prefer more to less of any good or service. It is often being referred to as the ―non satiation principle‖.